Educational facilities and teachers qualities as correlate Economics students’ academic performance in public schools of Ekiti state.
Background to the Study
Education is globally-accepted as the most viable tool for sustainable human development. It is equally an indispensable tool for enhancing economic growth and national development. Education is seen as the cornerstone of every development forming the basis for literacy, skill acquisition, technological advancement as well as the ability to harness the natural resources of the state. FRN (2004)
Participants in the World Conference on “Education for All” in Jomtien (2006) pointed out that education is a fundamental right of all people, women and men of all ages throughout the world. It helps to ensure a safer, healthier, more prosperous and environmentally-sound world. It is an indispensable key for personal and social improvement. UNESCO (1990) has however pointed out that the current provision of education is seriously deficient and that it must be made more relevant, qualitatively improved and universally available. In recognition of the inestimable value of education, the Nigerian Government has adopted education as an instrument par excellence for effecting national development. Thus, education is viewed as an instrument for building a free and democratic society, a just and egalitarian society, a united strong and self-reliant nation and a great and dynamic economy (Federal Republic of Nigeria, 2004).
In order to attain these national aspirations, secondary schools are expected to provide quality instructions that will be oriented towards inculcating values of respect for the worth and dignity of individuals; ability to make rational decisions; moral and spiritual values in interpersonal relationship and shared responsibility for the common good of society, among others (FRN, 2004). The quality of education of any nation, to a very large extent, determines the development status of that particular nation. Education can be regarded as the heartbeat of any nation. As a man nourishes his heart to be alive, a nation must also cater for her educational system to keep it ‘alive’ technologically, economically, politically, socially and to ensure quality products. (FRN, 2004).
The issue of quality in the educational system has been receiving a great deal of attention in the society in recent times. Parents as well as the entire society have been clamoring for quality (Nwogbo, 2010). The demand for quality in education is not out of place considering the huge sum of money that goes into the system. Nwogbo, (2010).
Madumere (2003), was of the view that education consumes a lot of public revenue. Therefore, it is important to note that those who manage schools should be accountable to the stakeholders. The quality of the products of education is part of that accountability.
Education imparted through quality instruction is not only for good grades alone but also for the acquisition of the right values, skills and competences to make an individual a useful member of the society. For education to achieve this objective, it must be of high quality, which, as Nwangwu (2000) opined, “should not only consist of passing examinations (which is usually the first priority) but also include the acquisition of skills (in the cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains) through improved schools’ ability to facilitate and support the work of teachers and students”.
Secondary education is a very critical level of any educational system. This is because it is the bedrock on which higher education is built as the foundation of whatever a child wants to become in life academically is laid here.
It is sad to note that the academic performance of students at this level is very poor in the northern part of this country (Northern Education Research Project, 2000). In the North Central Zone, for instance, the quality of secondary school leavers has continued to deteriorate. Specifically, students look for crooked means of passing their examinations. This is as a result of the fact that success in examination serves as a good motivator to students. On the other hand, failure to perform successfully in examination demoralizes all and sundry, especially students. It is the craving to succeed and avoid the frustration and embarrassment associated with failure that makes students engage in examination malpractices which has threatened the very foundation of our educational system (Ijaiya, 2004). Among the causes of examination malpractices are poor condition of service for teachers and inadequate teaching and learning facilities. These have an adverse effect on the quality of teachers as well as the quality of instruction because no educational system can rise above the quality of its teachers (FRN, 2004).
The quality of education of any nation determines the development status of that particular nation. The teacher is the pivot of the education process. The teacher is the key in the entire education programme and he can make or mar the best educational programme in the world. Education therefore is what teachers make of it. Thus, competent, devoted and professionally-qualified teachers are an essential foundation for a good education system. In other words, the attainment of national objectives for the adequate preparation of students for their examinations and achievement of educational objectives depend largely on teachers. (FRN, 2004) Obemeata (1996) reported Pope Pius XII (1942) as having stated that: Good schools are the fruits not only of good regulations but primarily of good teachers
excellently trained in their respective subjects which they are to teach and possessing the intellectual and moral qualities which their important offices require
The implication of the above comment is that if teachers are to perform the role expected of them satisfactorily, they should be of the right caliber as well as be adequately trained in order to be competent in the subjects which they are expected to teach.
Statement of the problem
Teaching and learning of Economics depends to a large extent on teacher’s own knowledge of the content and ability to adequately deliver the instruction to the students. Arinde, M R (2010). However a lot of variables may inhibit or hinder effective dissemination of knowledge to the understanding of the content by the students, such variables may be lack of qualified teachers, teachers’ qualification, experience, inadequate educational facilities and the use of instructional materials among others.
Several attempts have been made at improving teacher quality and teaching facilities, these efforts have not been proportionately reflected in students’ overall performance. Rather, such attempts have only sustained the highly bookish curriculum inherited from the colonial masters and made the educational system consumptive rather than productive. Therefore, there is the need for teachers to acquire enough skills to make them relevant technologically. Also, the relevance and adequacy of educational services and their effective utilization to students’ academic performance cannot be overemphasized (Jimoh, 2008).
Thus, the specific problem of this study centres around investigating the extent to which provision, utilization and maintenance of educational facility can influence teacher quality and in turn influence students’ academic performance in Ekiti state secondary schools in Nigeria.
Purpose of the Study
The major purpose of this study is to investigate educational facilities and teachers quality as correlate of Economics students’ academic performance in public secondary schools in Ekiti state.
The specific objective is to;
- Determine the influence of educational facilities on teacher quality and on students’ academic performance;
- Determine the extent to which the provision of library service enhances teaching and learning;
- Determine the influence of teacher quality on students’ academic Performance in Economics
- Determine the extent to which supervision of instruction influences teaching and learning of Economics
- Find out the level of students academic performance in public senior secondary schools, Ekiti state.
- Do educational facilities have impact of students’ academic performance in Economics?
- Do school facilities enhance teaching and learning of Economics?
- Do teachers’ qualities influence students’ academic Performance in Economics?
- To what extent does supervision of instruction influence teaching and learning of Economics?
- Do teachers’ qualification and working experience have impact on student’s academic performance in Economics?
H1: There is significant relationship between Educational facilities and students’ academic performance in Economics
H2: School facilities and teachers quality have significance relationship in teaching and learning of Economics
Significance of the Study
The problem of poor academic performance among public senior secondary school students is a serious issue that requires continuous and systematic investigation. A growing body of research shows that students’ academic performance is more influenced by teacher quality than by standard, race, class, academic record or the school a student attends (Sanders, 1997). There have been several research studies carried out on improving teacher quality for quality instruction but very little has been done in the area of provision of services that can enhance teaching and learning.
This study may hopefully provide some insight for educational planners and policy-makers by highlighting some basic but apparently neglected educational facilities such as education resource centre, library, Classrooms, ICT facilities
The suggestion of this study may positively assist teachers and school administrators to re-examine the educational facilities that are available to them and identify the services which are essential for quality teaching and learning.
The findings of this study may also hopefully contribute to existing literature by extending the stock of knowledge on the influence of educational facilities on teacher quality in the secondary schools in Ekiti state. It will also provide some useful reference materials for future researchers who might be interested in conducting similar studies elsewhere.
Furthermore, the study places much emphasis on the fact that teachers should be academically, physically and intellectually sound to be able to produce quality students which the nation needs in this millennium.
Finally the study is expected to guide educational planners on the provision of educational services that may improve the quality of secondary school teachers.
Scope of the Study
This study was concerned with the relationship among educational facilities, teacher quality and students’ academic performance in public senior secondary schools, in Ekiti state. There were sixteen local government area in Ekiti states These study will cover five randomly selected public secondary school in Ikere –Local Government Area of Ekiti State
Definition of major variables and terms
The following variables and terms are defined operationally as they are used in this study:
Dependent variable: The dependent variable for this study is students’ academic performance.
Independent variables: The independent variables are educational services and teacher quality.
Educational facilities These are the facilities available for teachers to improve their quality and promote teachers’ effectiveness in the school system.
Teacher quality: This means a degree of excellence, especially a high degree of goodness and worth of the teachers. In this study, teacher quality refers to teachers’ academic qualification, professional qualification and years of experience.
Library services: This term refers to the provision of functional libraries in
the school with current and relevant books and journals.
Academic performance: Examination result at the end of an academic programme in the school. In this study, the West African Senior School Certificate examination result is used.
Related literature was reviewed to serve as a link between past works in the relevant areas and the current study. The review focused on the following areas:
- Concept of teachers’ quality.
- Teachers’ quality and internal efficiency.
- Teachers’ qualification and students’ academic performance.
- Teaching experience and students’ academic performance in secondary schools.
- Teachers’ attitude to teaching and students’ academic performance.
- Theoretical Framework
- Empirical Framework
- Summary of Literature review