DETERMINATION OF TRACE METALS CONCENTRATION IN INTERESTIAL WATER AND SEDIMENTS FROM UREJE RIVER IN ADO EKITI, EKITI STATE.

DETERMINATION OF TRACE METALS CONCENTRATION IN INTERESTIAL WATER AND SEDIMENTS FROM UREJE RIVER IN ADO EKITI, EKITI STATE.
ABSTRACT
          The
concentration of trace metals in water and sediment from Ureje in Ado – Ekiti, Ekiti state
were studied. An investigation into the concentration and distribution of Pb,
Zn, fe, Mn, Cu, Cr, and Cd in water and sediment was under taken with a view to
evaluate the relationship of these metals in the two matrices and to find the
suitability of the water for domestic purposes. Cd was not detected in any of
the sample while other element present are more concentrated in the sediment
than the water sample.
          In general,
concentration of iron was found to be most abundant in the sediment with value
400.83ppm, followed by zinc with value of 27.98ppm while all other metals
present are in little amount.  Also, the
concentrations of iron and zinc in the water samples range from 0.ppm while all
other the water sample ranges from 0.1ppm – 0.2ppm while all other metals were
absent.



TABLE OF CONTENT
Title page                                                                               
Certification                                                                           
Dedication                                                                                    
Acknowledgement                                                               
Abstract                                                                                 
Table of content                                                                             
List of table                                                                           
CHAPTER ONE
Introduction                                                                          
Aim and objective of the work                                             
CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW                                                    
Marine sedimentation                                                          
Trace metal in rivers sediments                                         
Metals as a water pollutants                                                     
Sources of trace metals in aquatic system                      
Natural sources                                                                    
Artificial sources                                                                            
Detrimental effect of some trace metals                                     
Cadmium                                                                              
Zinc                                                                                        
Lead                                                                                                
Copper                                                                                  
Economic importance of trace metals                                     
CHAPTER THREE
Materials and method, sampling                                         
Analytical procedure                                                            
CHAPTER FOUR
Results and Discussion                                                     
Discussion                                                                                      
CHAPTER FIVE
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION                    
Conclusion                                                                        
Recommendation                                                              
REFERENCES                                                                    
APPENDIX                                                                           
LIST OF TABLE
Table 3.1   wavelength
of some trace metals.
Table 4.1   Trace
metals concentration in water in PPM of the samples.
Table 4.2   Trace
metals concentration in sediment in PPM of samples.
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Water is man’s most precious resources as it plays many
important roles water is absolutely essential to life, man uses water not for
drinking and culinary purposes but also for bathing, wasting, laundning etc. As
a result water supplies of good quality continue to be developed and extended
on an emergency basis (Camp and Mersenve, 1994). The estimated 1200 million
people lack a satisfactory on safe water supply (Pickening and Owen, 1997)
water is a colourless liquid at atmospheric pressure, it freezes at 0OC
and boils at 100OC with, a density of 1g/cm3 or 1000kglm3
(Van Den Beng, 1984).  It cover about 80O/0
of the earth’s surface and dissolves almost everything to certain extent.  Its availability in adequate supply and
suitable purity is essential to any civilized community.
Natural water contains some impurities whose nature and
amount vary with sources of the water, due to this fact in any river system an
understanding of the concentration and fate of trace metals is extremely important
in addressing their impact on the regional environment.
The important of good quality water to the existence of
mankind cannot be over emphasized.  The
need for the development of water has become more urgent than before,
fortunately in many countries both the government and private organization are
beginning to appreciate this fact and began to take positive measure such as
provision of fund for research work.
Also water body could also be developed to support the
fishing industry for the provision of recreational facilities and for
scientific research among other on the other hand improper of lack of
management of the water body could result in heath hazard and economic
loss.  However, in order to prevent this
and maximize benefits, a sound knowledge of physic chemical aspect of the water
it self, as well as that of the fauna and flora is needed.
Over the past years, a number of data have been published
on atmosphere trace metal pollution. 
Human activities contribute for more than the emission from natural
sources. (Poilitel et al; 1997). However, concentration ranges of 0.1 –
03mg/eylc from the most remote region of the world to industrial urban areas (Taylor, 1988).
Metals are introduced into our aquatic system as
contaminants through several ways which includes weathering of weeks and soils
dissolution of acrosol particles of the atmosphere and from several human
activities involving the minting processes and the use of metal base materials
(Ipinmonoti et al; 1993, A et al; 1993, Adeyeye, 1994 and Asaolu et al,
1997).  Metals after entering the water
may be precipitated absorbed or solid surfaces remain soluble, suspended in
water or may be taken up by plant and animals and eventually accumulated in
marine organism that are consumed by human being.
Furthermore, metals are generally, toxic if the exposure
level is very high as to expressed the tolerable maximum permission level
(Kenstan, 1995 and Forstner, 1995) Despite the toxicity associated with some
mineral.  It is not unreasonable to
expect that some such as lead and cadmium are essential.
The fact that contamination could arise anytime due to
the dynamic nature of our aquatic system most importantly dams and lakes, from
time to monitoring of our aquatic system is highly essential accurate
determination is important because certain element are needed only in trace
amount function as constituent on as activator of enzymes.
Aims and Objectives
of the Work
The presence of the metal pollutants in fresh water is
known to disturb the balance of the aquatic ecosystem.
The need to assess the state and quality of the
Ureje  river in Ado – Ekiti and the
sediment in terms of its metallic load becomes imperative since water from the
river and the dam constructed from it is being used for domestic purpose and
fishing activity by people living in the catchments area in view of the health
implications that may act across the food strata due to the presence of some
toxic metals in aquatic system.
This research work reports the concentration of trace
metals (zinc, iron, lead, manganese, chromium, copper and cadmium) in water and
sediments from Ureje rivers.
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