DETERMINATION OF THE SAPONIFICATION VALUE OF OILS

ABSTRACT
          This
research work gives the description of how the saponification value of some
selected natural oil can be determined. A definite amount of each sample of oil
was reflexed in a given volume of standard ethanolic potassium hydroxide
solution for 45 minutes. On completing the saponification reaction, the
ethanolic KOH was titrated against a standard HCL solution.
          From
the obtained result, palm kernel oil had the highest saponification value and
would therefore be the best natural oil for soap – making. The value obtained
for palm oil was below expectation. This might be due to lack of proper
purification during its preparation.  
 

TABLE OF CONTENT
Title page                                                                      
Certification                                                                  
Dedication                                                                    
Acknowledgement                                                        
Abstract                                                                      
Table of content                                                            
CHAPTER ONE
Introduction                                                                 
Types of oil                                                                            
Occurrence and extraction                                            
General physical characteristics                                  
General chemical characteristics                                 
Analysis of fats and oils                                                         
Fats as food                                                                            
Uses of oils and fats                                                     
Aim of the project                                                                  



CHAPTER TWO
Experimental                                                                
CHAPTER THREE
Results and Calculations                                                
CHAPTER FOUR
Discussion                                                                     
REFERENCES                                                            



CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Saponification
is a routine laboratory and industrial reaction of particular interest as most
soaps are being manufacture by the saponification of animal fats.
Saponification
is an alkaline – catalysed chemical reaction in which an ester splits to form
an alcohol and a salt of carboxylic acid. The term arose from the alkaline
hydrolysis of fat to yield soaps, hence soaps are potassium or sodium salts of
long chain carboxylic acid.  (William,
1976).
Saponification
is made effected by boiling the ester in an aqueous alkali (KOH or NaOH)
solution. The free carboxylic acid can be recovered by neutralizing the mixture
via mineral acid.

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