DETERMINATION OF THE ACID VALUE OF SOME MARKETABLE VEGETABLE OILS

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page                                                                             
Certification                                                                                     
Dedication                                                                              
Acknowledgement                                                                  
Abstract                                                                                 
Table of content                                                           
CHAPTER ONE
Introduction                                                                           
1.1           
Historical
Background of vegetable oil                         
1.2           
Cultivation
of Vegetable Oils                                       
1.3           
Climatic
Condition                                                  
1.4           
Soil
                                                                               
1.5           
Water
availability and quality                                      
1.6           
Economic
importance of vegetable oil                                    
CHAPTER TWO
2.1           
Fats
and oils                                                                           
2.2           
Properties
of fats and oils                                             
2.3           
Analysis
of fats and oils                                                         
2.4           
Functions
of fats in the diet                                        
2.5           
Sources
of fat and oil with diet                                               
2.6           
Fat
content of some foods                                            
CHAPTER THREE   
3.1     Title                                                                           
3.2     Aim
                                                                        
3.3     Materials
                                                                 
3.4     Apparatus
used                                                          
3.5     Theory
                                                                         
3.6     Method
                                                                        
3.7     Observation
                                                                           
3.8     Results
                                                                       
CHAPTER FOUR  
4.0     Discussion
and Conclusion                                           
REFERENCES                                                                   
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1     Historical Background of Vegetable Oils
Vegetable
oils originated plants and some cash crops.  We can manufacture vegetable oils from either
palm kernels, coconuts, Groundnuts, melons or soya beans e.t.c. vegetable oils
are derived from these plants which are consumed in relatively small quantities
as a side- dish or a relish with sample food. Most vegetables are leaves, roots
or stems of herbaceous plants although flowers, calyces, immature seeds or
fruits may also be consumed as vegetables. Nutritionally, vegetable oils are
good source of vitamins, protein, minerals, fibres and they form part of the
composition of some of the important dishes in the tropical area.
In Africa,
three major classes of vegetable are consumed (a) those that are gathered from
the wild such as baobab leaves, leaves of purslane (portulaca) (b) indigeneous
vegetable oil which are gathered but are also cultivated, such as Amarathus, (c)
imported vegetable species which are cultivated. Only those vegetables included
in the latter two categories have been known, this selection should not,
however, be construed as dimishing the importance of gathered vegetable oils.
1.2     Cultivation of Vegetable Oils
(Planting of
vegetable crops like palm trees, coconuts, melon and groundnut): palm tree and
coconut trees are cash crops and they are mainly grown in forest zone of the
country while the nuts are mainly grown in savanna zone of the country like
melon, and groundnuts. Most of these vegetables plants are propagated by seeds
some can be nursed before transfer to permanent site. The soil requirement are
dry- loamy soil, while that of melons and groundnut are well developed in loamy
soil. Melons and groundnut s can be classified into the group of annual crops,
but in case of coconuts and palm trees they are cash crops. But most of these
crop seeds are extracted to vegetable oil through extraction processing.
1.3     Climatic Condition
1.                
Rainfall: Both the total annual amount and
the monthly distribution should be considered carefully in selecting the site
of growth. Many crops are sensitive to excessive water in root zone and the
rainfall patter is therefore likely to determine the range of crops which can
be grown. Some crops are save raly damaged due to periods of prolonged wet
weather. Where the wet season is limited and there are either one or two
distinct dry periods, irrigation may be required to provide the soil water
necessary for normal growth.
2.                
Temperature: This is another major factor
affecting growth of many vegetable but one which cannot easily be modified in
any practical manner. Those crops which are either sensitive or tolerant to
high temperatures should be selected for local prevailing conditions.
3.                
 Topography: of an
arwa has important relation to temperature and temperature variation which occurs
at elevations over 800-1000m is beneficial to many crops particularly leaf
crops.
4.                
Day Length: is also important factor which has
to be considered in the selection of some introduced or exotic types of
vegetables, particularly those which originated in sub tropical or temperate
regions. Many of these are adapted to day lengths longer than the 12-13 hours
which is typical of most areas and it is therefore necessary to ensure that
only cultivate which respond to relatively short days, or are day- length
neutral are grown in most tropical regions.  
1.4           
Soil:
a soil analysis, used to determine the reserves of chemical nutrients in
soil is more difficult and has normally to be undertaken by a government soil
analytical laboratory.
1.5           
Water availability and quality: The quality of available water for
irrigation is very important, first, the chemical content should be considered
as it may affect the total salt level of the sample, rendering it too saline
for irrigation purposes. Brassicas are relatively salt tolerant, where as
cucubits, for example, are not. There may be specific chemicals such as boron,
present in sufficient proportions for toxicity problems to arise with
susceptible crops. Sediments or other materials such as algae in suspension may
blocks the fine outlets sprinklers, spray lines, or trickle systems,.  
1.6           
Economic importance of vegetable oils:
i.                  
Source
of income, vegetable oils are mainly produced for domestic uses, people do buy
oil and generate money from the sales.
ii.                
Source
of foreign exchange, this can also generate fund for the country through buying
and selling, it may be through the process of international trade.
iii.             
Source
of food: people do consume and eat vegetable oils directly as part of dish
composition.

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