COMPARATIVE EFFECT OF REAL AND IMPROVISED MATERIALS ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN INTEGRATED SCIENCE,

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CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background to the study
Integrated science  is an exact and a core science subject in
Nigerian secondary schools. Its teaching often requires creativity and
improvisation. To make integrated science 
concepts comprehensible to students, integrated science teachers must
employ creative teaching methods and be prepared to respond to queries and
explain concepts in an atypical manner (Nbina, 2012). The widespread poor
performance and the negative attitude towards 
intehrated science in junior secondary school students have largely been
ascribed to lack of proper teaching methods. Teachers who adapt appropriate
improvisation materials in teaching 
integrated science will likely be more successful in imparting science
knowledge to the novice  in their
classes. Samba and Eriba (2011) see improvisation as the act of using
alternative materials and resources to facilitate instructions whenever there
is lack or shortage of specific first hand teaching aids. The authors see
improvisation as the choice of the best instructional material which enables
the teacher to achieve some carefully specified educational objectives.
Stiggins (2008) added that there are various methods used to increase class
participation and performance among students.
Science is the foundation upon which the bulk of
present day technological break through is built. Nowadays, nations al

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Statement of the Problem
The
Nigeria vision 20-20-20 will be in mirage if the poor academic performance of
students in sciences is not check on time. The researchers observed that memorization
of facts have replaced experimentation in some of Nigerian schools. Hence,
technological advancement and breakthrough remain a hope of many decades to
come.
Dependency on expensive imported standard materials that are
always deficient in supply, which also makes students to view science as a
foreign concept that should be memorized rather than understood, is the worry
of this research. This is made manifest in poor achievement and low interest in
science generally, and in integrated science particularly among secondary
school students in Ikere Ekiti. Considering the role of science and technology
in the development of any nation and more so in a country considered to be
developing like Nigeria. Science educators believe that achievement of students
at their full potentials and sustained interest in science especially
integrated science, could be a function of appropriate lesson delivery techniques
on one hand, but also of the relevance, adequacy and applicability of the
materials and equipment upon which science lessons must be based.
The present researcher therefore investigated the  effect of real and improvised materials on the
academic perofmance of students in integrated science. The findings of this
study will thus provide answers to questions such as:  Does students taught with improvised materials
performance better than students taught with real instructional materials?,
What are the effect of real instructional material on students academic
performance  in integrated science?  What are effect of improvise instructional
material on students academic performance in integrated science?
Objective of the study
The major objective of this study is to investigate the
comparative effect of real and improvised materials on academic performance in
integrated science, with special references to Ikere Local Government Area of
Ondo State.
            The specific
objective is
i.                   
To  compare if students taught with improvised
materials performance better than students taught with real instructional
materials.
ii.                
To determine the effect of
real instructional material on students academic performance
iii.              
To investigate the effect of
improvise instructional material on students academic performance in integrated
science
iv.              
To determine the attitude of
students towards the use of improvised and real instructional material in
learning integrated science
v.                 
To investigate the attitude
of integrated science teacher towards the use of improvise and real
instructional materials in teaching and learning integrated science
Research Question
i.                   
Does students taught with
improvised materials performance better than students taught with real
instructional materials? 
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