The study is aimed at investigating class size as a predictor of academic performance of students in Business Studies in junior secondary schools in Ikere Ekiti  .  In view of these, three   research questions with three research hypotheses were formulated. This study was a descriptive research of survey type.  fifty respondents   were selected for the study.  simple random sampling technique was used to select five secondary schools for the studies. A well structured questionnaire was used for data collection and the data were analyzed using percentage and mean rating.   The study revealed that  there is a significant influence of school location  on students’ academic performance in business studies. Also the study revealed that   class size has significant influence on academic achievement of secondary school students in business studies. The study recommend  Secondary school management should employ more teacher for the teaching of Business studies. There is the need to make the number of students to be taught in the classes to be moderate so that the teacher can be able to manage the class effectively and give individual attention to students where necessary.


Title page

Declaration page


Approval page



Table of Contents



Background to the Study

Statement of the Problem

Objective of the Study

Research Questions

Research Hypotheses

Significance of the Study

Scope of the Study

Definition of Terms

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW                                       


Research Design

Population of the Study

Sample and Sampling Techniques

Instrument for Data Collection

Validity of the Instrument

Reliability of the Instrument

Administration of the Instrument

Method of data Analysis


Analysis of research questions

Test of Research Hypotheses

CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS                                            





Suggestion for further studies





Background to the study

The growth in school populations has a direct influence on class sizes, and this can significantly affect students’ academic achievements. Class size refers to the number of students present in a particular course or classroom. It encompasses both the number of students under the instruction of individual teachers within a specific course or classroom and the average number of students under the guidance of teachers within an educational institution or system. It also relates to the number of students participating in a learning experience. Decisions about class size are typically administrative in nature, with teachers having little or no control over them. Class size serves as an educational metric that describes the average number of students in each class within a school (Adeyemi, 2018).

Schools can have both large and small class sizes. Smaller classes tend to offer teachers a greater opportunity to spend more individualized time with each student. Conversely, large classes pose more significant challenges related to classroom management, student discipline, grading, lesson planning, and assessment. Teachers often find themselves under increased pressure when dealing with large class sizes. Smaller classes facilitate easier problem identification, more effective feedback provision, tailored instruction to meet specific student needs, and the establishment of individual learning goals for students. Additionally, teachers tend to foster better relationships with and possess more in-depth knowledge of individual students (Ajayi and Adeosun, 2014).

In efforts to manage the escalating capital costs associated with education, there have been suggestions to increase the average class size (Ajayi and Adeosun, 2014). These ideas find support in the findings of Toth and Montagna (2002), who noted that rising enrollment in educational institutions is a significant concern and is likely to lead to larger class sizes. However, Commeyras (2000) disagreed with this viewpoint, arguing that effective teaching becomes impractical when dealing with large class sizes of 50, 75, 100, or more.

In Nigeria, Okoro (2016) suggested that class sizes in the University of Nigeria, Nsukka, should ideally range between 35 and 40 students. He contended that having too few students per class is uneconomical, as it does not maximize the use of space, teachers, and teaching materials. Conversely, Nwadiani (2000) argued that higher class sizes lead to lower education costs. Nonetheless, he also noted that overcrowded classrooms thinly spread resources, which adversely affects the quality of education.

A key pillar for the successful implementation of an effective business education program is the availability and sufficiency of teaching and learning resources. Unfortunately, in Ekiti State, Nigeria, there is a glaring inadequacy of infrastructural facilities, evident in the shortage of laboratory equipment, classrooms, and lecture halls. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the implications of large class sizes on the teaching and learning of Business Education in Ekiti State, Nigeria.

In the context of business education, the student-teacher ratio must be taken into account. Student-teacher ratios serve as a broad measure of teacher workload and resource allocation, as well as the level of individual attention students receive from their instructors, particularly in skill-based subjects. Teaching is a dynamic process involving interaction among learners, subject matter, and teachers within a conducive environment. According to Olowe (2003), as quoted from Opute (1998), teaching entails the deliberate actions undertaken by teachers to bring about changes in learners’ behavior. Effective teaching should encourage diverse learning methods. Desai (2012) further emphasizes that teaching should result in desired changes in knowledge, abilities, skills, attitudes, and mindset. It is an active process in which one person shares information with others to facilitate a transformation in behavior. The most effective teaching ultimately leads to the most effective learning.

Ayeni (2013) emphasized that the learner takes center stage in the classroom, with their educational experience holding significant importance in achieving the goals of Business Education, such as skill acquisition, occupational competence, self-reliance, and productivity. Creating a conducive learning environment is essential for acquiring these skills and competencies. Psychologists view learning as a process—a means of acquiring and retaining attitudes, knowledge, understanding, skills, and capabilities that are not solely attributable to innate behavior patterns (Farlex, 2015).

Learning, as Farlex (2015) explains, encompasses the act, process, or experience of gaining knowledge or skills, often through formal education or study. Wikipedia (2015) defines it as the acquisition, modification, and reinforcement of existing knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or preferences, sometimes involving the synthesis of various types of information. Human learning can occur within the context of education, personal development, schooling, or training, and it is often goal-oriented and fueled by motivation.

Gagne (1970) characterizes learning as a change in human disposition or capabilities that can be retained and is not solely a result of natural growth. According to this definition, learning is characterized by changes resulting from experience, study, training, and practice, and these changes are relatively enduring. Effective teaching and learning are pivotal in the realm of Business Education, which aims to equip individuals with the attitudes, concepts, knowledge, understanding, and skills needed for careers in administration, management, teaching, or any business-related field (Okoro, 2013).

Njoku (2006) similarly defines Business Education as a program that provides individuals with practical and relevant skills, knowledge, attitudes, and values to navigate their future business environments effectively. Business education imparts information and competence essential for personal business affairs (Osuala, 2014).

Quality education serves as a cornerstone for global development and freedom. Therefore, worldwide efforts must focus on formulating policies that enhance the quality of education from elementary school through tertiary institutions, with ongoing, effective monitoring to address factors that may hinder this global pursuit. Mandatory school attendance for a specified number of years or until a certain age is common in many societies. The benefits of schooling often result from the acquisition of new knowledge and skills that enhance communication, problem-solving, and decision-making abilities.

To promote quality education globally, various factors that contribute to declining educational standards have been identified, and class size is among them. According to Adeyemi (2018), class size can be defined as the average number of students in a classroom within a school, while Hoffman (2010) describes it as the number of students per teacher in a class. Kidney (2019) views class size as a tool to gauge the performance of the education system.

As school populations increase, class sizes may also increase, leading to concerns about student performance. Dror (2015) points out that class size is frequently discussed in educational literature as a factor influencing students’ feelings and achievements, as well as impacting administration, educational quality, and school budgets. Dror (2015) also notes that class size is often an administrative decision over which teachers have limited or no control. Many researchers assume that class size significantly influences students’ success, with several studies reporting class size as an important factor under ideal circumstances.

Defining what constitutes a large or small class size requires clarification. Bray (2010) suggests that small groups have fewer teachers, offer a limited range of subjects, and struggle to justify investments in libraries. Students in small groups may lack competition and interaction with relatively few peers, potentially spending their entire school careers with the same teacher.

Statement of the Problem

Schooling has multiple purposes for instance; high levels of school are associated with higher earnings and economic mobility, better health, lower mortality rates and greater participation in the leadership process in one’s immediate and the global community. In an attempt lo put sound education on ground worldwide, many factors have been incriminated as being responsible for falling standard of education where it is  perceived and established. Among such factors is the issue of class size.

Meanwhile, there are clouds of opinion on the issue that the poor performance of students does not only stem from the high population of students in the classroom but from other factors such as inefficiency of part of teachers, inadequate infrastructures, indiscipline etc. It is therefore, imperative to study the implication of class size on the student performance in business studies in Ikere local government area of  Ekiti State.

 Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this study is to investigate Class size as a predictor of academic performance of students in business studies in junior secondary school. In ikere ekiti

The specific objectives is;

  1. To determine e relationship between class size and students’ academic performance in business studies
  2. To find out the interaction effect between location of school and class size in the achievement in Business studies
  3. To find out the impact of class size on Business studies teachers’ productivity in secondary schools in Ekiti State?

Research Questions

The research seeks to answer the following questions

  1. What are the relationship between class size on students’ academic performance in business studies
  2. What are the effect of school location  and sttudents academic  achievement in Business studies
  3. What is the impact of class size on Business studies teachers’ productivity in secondary schools in Ekiti State?

Research hypothesis

Ho1: There is no significant difference between the achievement of students in Business studies   in small and large sized classes of junior secondary schools.

Ho2: There is no significant relationship between location of school and class size  on academic performance of business studies students

Significance of the Study

The finding of the study will likely be of benefit to the followings:

Government will be able to identify problems responsible for poor teaching and learning of Business in Junior Secondary Schools and proffer solutions by building more classrooms and make more adequate provision for chairs and lockers especially in urban schools to help put overcrowding under check as this will further improve effective classroom control for better teaching and Learning of Business Studies in Junior Secondary Schools.

The school administrators will be able to know the population of students admitted into the schools which should be dependent on the available space and facilities.

Teachers will be able to have proper classroom management and control for effective teaching and learning of Business Studies in Junior Secondary Schools by identifying suitable numbers of teachers to students’ ratio in a class. Also students will be able to know the implication of class size on Business Studies learning and how it will enhance their performance in the subject. It will help students to foster greater interaction among themselves, helping them, understand one another and increasing their desire to assist one another.

Scope of the Study

The study is specifically talking about class size as a predictor of students academic performance in Business studies. The study will select five secondary schools in Ikere Ekiti for the study.

Definition of Terms

Learning: means acquiring new knowledge, information or skill.  It is relatively permanent change   in behaviour as a result of practice or experience.

Facilities – These are the students in a school settings e.g. classroom, lockers and chairs.

Students: is a person who is studying at a school especially in secondary and higher institution.

Teacher: A teacher is a person   imparting knowledge to student.  A teacher is a person specially selected, trained and educated for the job of dispensing knowledge to others according to their needs and capabilities.

Academic Achievement:   Knowledge attained or  skills  developed   in school subject by test scores.

Teaching: teaching is the act of imparting knowledge to another person. Teaching involves some one imparting the knowledge and some receiving the knowledge.



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