Title page                                                                                                     
Approval page                                                                                             
Table of content                                                                                          
List of Table                                                                                                  
List of Figure s                                                                                             
ONE: Introduction
to the Study                                                                           
of the Study                                                                               
of the Study                                                                                  
of the Study                                                                           
Scope of the
TWO: Review of Related Literature
The concept of
large class                                                                  
Defining a small
Small Class –
size and the teaching of Geography in schools     
Large class –
size and the teaching of Geography in Schools     
Comparison between
small and large classes                             
Geography teaching and learning in Nigeria                              
Missing Links
in Teaching and Leaning of Geography in Secondary Schools                                                                       
Summary of the
THREE: Methodology
of the Study                                                                                        
of the Study                                                                              
and Sampling Technique                                                             
and Reliability of the Instrument                                              
for Data Collection                                                                  
Method of Data
FOUR: Presentation of Data, Analysis and Discussion of Result
of Findings                                                                               
FIVE: Summary, Conclusion, Recommendations and
of Findings                                                                                 
APPENDIX I                                                                                               
APPENDIX II                                                                                             
APPENDIX III                                                                                           
                                    LIST OF TABLES
4.1        Gender Distribution of
4.2        Age Distribution of Respondents                                     
Table 4.3        Achievement Mean Score of Students from
large class
size and small class size                                          
4.4        Relationship between teachers’
method of
teaching and class size
4.5        Relationship between the policy
class size and learning
of Geography                              
4.6        Relationship between the lesson
through the use of
instructional materials and
level of class size in
learning of Geography                    
Fig. 3.1       Map of Ekiti State showing the study Area                  
Fig. 4.1       Gender Distribution of Respondents                   
This study examined class size and teaching /
learning of geography in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State. Research questions
were raised to guide the study in the chapter one of the study; Experimental
survey were used to elicits data from students’ from two selected secondary
schools in Ikere local government area of Ekiti State. Data collected were analysed
using t-test statistics, it was revealed from the findings that there is link
between class size and teaching/learning of geography, geography students in
small size class in secondary schools show higher achievement relative to their
colleagues in large size class. The findings further concluded that small class
size is recorded in geography classroom as reslt of choice among the students’
that choose the subject. It was further recommended that it is necessary to involve students in meaningful and purposeful
learning activities base on investigation examination and observation of their
own immediate environment in the teaching of Geography. All efforts should be
made by everybody in the society to ensure the effective teaching of geography
regardless of class size. Also, Geography teachers should Endeavour to maintain
discipline irrespective of the size of the class. This is one of the qualities
of good teachers. Therefore whether in a large or small class, the teachers’
ability to control students will determine the effectiveness of teaching.
of the study                                                  
The significance of Geography as a school subject
cannot be over emphasized. It combines with many school subjects – Arts, Social
Sciences, Pure Sciences, Mathematical Sciences, Languages and Technical
Education to make a child qualify for tertiary education in Nigeria and outside
the country as well. Similarly, it has led to making of professionals in
various fields of human endeavour – planning, administration, academics, catographic,
hydrologic, climate, environmental and others – just to mention but a few. But
there are complaints about the large scope and abstract nature of the subject.
The complaints are widespread among students and teachers alike. That the
subject is abstract is accentuated by the assumption that it is difficult to teach
and learn about. More importantly, class size was one of the major problems
been faced by teachers and students, and there are no readily available
teaching aids for effective teaching and learning of geography.
It seems that geography teachers have no doubt that
large size of classes is a prime impediment for the efficient geography
teaching and learning. With more students enrolling in schools, large classes
in a country like Nigeria and other developing countries like Egypt, India and
Pakistan tend to be obligatory rather than exceptional. Therefore, the problem
seems to expand widely. As a matter of fact, large classes are not in and of
themselves an issue to look forward to with dread. Admittedly, they require a
great intention and careful preparation from teachers before the teaching
process takes place. Heppner (2007), views large classes as a small business
which should be set up and handled carefully. Generally speaking, experienced
geography teachers in general and teachers beginning teaching in particular
find it onerous to manage a class with a big number of students with various levels
and different personalities. Therefore, it is helpful for teachers to divert a
lot of class responsibility to students and back up a little and that will give
students space to teach each other.
Ozochie (2009) opines
that class size is to be one of the crucial elements that are often considered
by education planners in order to achieve the set out objectives in any
educational system.  This is because of
the obvious negative implication of a crowded classroom on the teacher and the
learners.  He further reveals that to
make the correct estimate of the resources needed is the function of
population.  This point suggests that the
essence of having a definite number of learners in a classroom is to ensure
that the resources (the teacher, the instructional materials, class space,
seating arrangement) are adequately provided for smooth teaching and learning
of geography.
from the need for adequate provision of resources, effective teaching and
learning seem to be the function of the teacher understanding the individual
differences of each of the learners as this forms the basis for the appropriate
teaching skill to be applied.  Onah
(2008) apparently notes in this regard that the essence of having a manageable
class-size is to ensure that the understanding rate of each of the learners and
their respective general background are put into consideration by the teacher
in the course of his teaching.
The national policy on
education revised in 2010 stipulates that the maximum teacher – student ratio
is one teacher to thirty students (ratio 1:30). 
The obvious reason for this standard is to ensure that the teacher not
only controls the class but also understands the learning capabilities of each
of the learner in the classroom.  Ozochie
(2009) affirms that there is a limit to which a teacher can effectively control
an overcrowded Classroom. Mulryan-Kyne (2010) defines an overcrowded or large
class as “a class that is too large for effective teaching to occur”. Teachers’
perception of large class-size differs from one context to another. Hess (2001)
assumes that a class is considered large if it has 35 students or more. As
regard to Nigeria context, a class of 50 students is considered to be large,
while in some far countries, such as Japan, China, Pakistan and India, a class
of 80 students and more is deemed to be large. In contrast, small class-size is
a class in which there is less or no concentration on class control and
management of students’ delinquencies and deviances (Pong. et al, 2001).
Teaching and learning
of geography, like every other subject requires observation and learners
centered activities.  In order to achieve
the desired result, the teacher should ensure that he monitors the activities
of the learner.  As Heppner (2007)
rightly notes and portrays class size as the entire instrument to ensuring
child centered purposeful set of activities within a coherent and structured
frame work.  This cannot be achieved
unless it can be translated into meaningful action.  For Heppner, this requires more than simply
presenting children with organized activities, rather, such becomes meaningful
when the purpose of the activities becomes meaningful, explicit and shared
between students’ and teacher under a class that could be managed effectively
by the teacher.
In an overcrowded
classroom, the learner-centered activities would pose great challenge to the
teacher; hence the desired behavioral changes may not be easily achieved. It is
therefore the focus of this study to examine class size and teaching / learning
of geography in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State.
of the Problem
No one is absolutely certain whether small classes
are inherently better than the large once in regard to the roles both classes
play and their effectiveness on the process of geography teaching and learning.
Therefore, finding a definition to an idealistic class size which could be
applicable in almost all teaching and learning environment tends to be
difficult. As school population increases class sizes also increase, the
performances of students become an issue. Class size has become a phenomenon
often mentioned in the educational literature as an influence on student’s
feelings and achievement, on administration, quality and school budgets. Class
size is almost an administrative decision over which teachers have little or no
control. It is expected that students should be within the range of 25 and 30
in a class. Most researchers start from the assumption that size of the class
would prove a significant determinant of the degree of success of students. In
fact, with the exception of a few, many studies have reported that under ideal
situation, class size itself appears to be an important factor. Secondary
schools in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State today, the teacher –
student ratio in some schools has gone far beyond the stipulation in the
national policy on education. There are places where students stay more than
fifty in each of the classes. The seating arrangements are altered, thereby
making teaching and learning of geography difficult, add to what other
researchers have written on class size, this study is set to investigate class
size and teaching/learning of geography in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti
of the Study
The following research
purposes have been designed for this study. These are to:
find out the teacher – students ratio in
geography classroom in secondary schools in Ikere Local Government Area of
Ekiti State
find out how class size affects students’
academic performance in geography subject in secondary schools in Ikere Local
Government Area of Ekiti State
examine the effectiveness of the policy
guiding teacher-student ratio in senior secondary schools in Ikere Local
Government Area of Ekiti State.
Examine the effectiveness of the use of
instructional materials in an overcrowded classroom environment and small class
of the Study
Considering the fact that teaching of Geography in
large classes is a great problem and a real national issue which is worrying
Geography teachers at all levels. This study aims at investigate class size and
teaching / learning of geography in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State.
The study is hoped to therefore assisting geography teachers to adopt more
suitable teaching methods in teaching over-populated classes.
is equally believed that it will provide curriculum planners with ways of
combating problems of teaching geography in over-populated classes and as well
assisting geography teachers to adopt suitable method in achieving proper class
is hoped that it will serving as a measure for government to know their
weaknesses and thus make provisions for infrastructural and human resources in
secondary schools.
Research Questions
study is designed to provide answers to the following questions;
What are the students – teacher ratio in
geography classroom in secondary schools in Ikere Local Government Area of
Ekiti State?
How effective is the teacher’s method of
teaching in both large class-size and small class-size in geography classroom
in secondary schools in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State?
Does policy guiding teacher-students
ratio still in effective for teaching and learning of geography in secondary
schools in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State?
Are the lesson objectives achievable
through the use of instructional materials in large class-size and small class
– size during the teaching and learning of geography in secondary schools in
Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State?
The following null hypothetical statements are made
with respect to the objectives of the study:
There is no large class size in the
geography classroom in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State
There is no significant relationship
between teachers’ method of teaching and class-size effect in teaching and
learning of geography.
There is no significant relationship
between policy guiding teacher-students’ ratio and teaching and learning of
geography in secondary schools in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State.
There is no significant difference
between the lesson objective achievable through the use of instructional
materials and the level of class size in teaching and learning of geography in
secondary schools in Ikere Local Government Area of Ekiti State.
of the Study
research is on the class size and teaching / learning of geography in Ikere
Local Government Area of Ekiti State. It is worth mentioning that this study
focuses on some selected senior secondary schools in Ikere Local Government Area
and not the entire Local Government Area in Ekiti State. In other word, due to
time limits and financial constraints, this research has been limited to two
senior secondary schools in the Local Government Area.

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