1.1 Background of the study
Teenager is a stage of life in which the individual (male or female) begins to develop sexual characteristics. It is usually between the ages of 13 and 19 (WHO 2013). At this stage of life, sexual desires are often at their peak. Adolescents are in what the Bible calls “the flowering of youth” a time when their sexual organs develop and they become able to have children. Pregnancy begins at the moment when a single spectrum fertilized a matured egg (egg). In a normal ejaculation during sexual intercourse, about 200, 400 million sperm are deposited in the upper vagina, of this number; a few thousand remain in the virginal and die within 3 days. Only a few manage to make their way through the body of the uterus and back up to the fallopian tubes where fertilization takes place. A single sperm enters the egg membrane to unite with the egg. When this happens, a zygote is formed. The fertilized egg then goes to the fallopian tube to the uterus for implantation. The journey to the uterus can lead to pregnancy. (Austin c r” capacitation ” of Mamallian sperm pubmed 1952).
In addition, the fact that most parents pay less attention to their children, coupled with the fact that today’s teens grow up in a culture in which peers, television and film, music and magazine often convey a secret or overt message that unmarried sex (especially those involving teens) are accepted and sometimes expected behaviors have contributed enormously to the moral decay that plagues our teens.(Every woman, every child 2015). Education on responsible sexual behaviour and accurate information on the consequences of sexual intercourse (including pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases and psychological effects) is often not available at home, school or in community settings. As a result, a large proportion of sex education adolescents receive filters through uninformed and/or unified peers. All this of course leads adolescents to early dating behavior (which leads to premarital sex) and early use of alcohol or other drugs, including tobacco products, which could lead to pregnancy.
However, being pregnant is a right that is supposed to be shared with one’s life partners unfortunately, for various reasons, it has been abused by our teens today. Statistically, four out of ten girls become pregnant before the age of 20, and about 40% of teenage mothers are under the age of 18 (Awake, 2014). This is due to various factors, such as the effects of broken houses, ignorance of the conservations of sexual activities, lack of self-respect on the part of some adolescents to sexual experience, as well as their inability to take the necessary precautions (for the sample, having sex without adequate contraception. This, in turn, has led to a high dropout rate, a cycle of poverty, destitution, an increased rate of abortion, emotional depression, a high level of delinquency, a high mortality rate, a reduction in the labour force as well as a decline in the standard of living of the adolescents concerned, their families and society in general. It should be noted that teenage mother and father may suffer from economic difficulties and not achieve their educational and career goals. Those who have not been able to finish high school often find themselves in a cycle of poverty from which it is difficult to get out.
According to Lynn (2011), it is as if female students experiencing teenage pregnancy feel like they are losing their previous lives when they give birth. The
ir new life revolves entirely around their baby. Female students may fall into depression while trying to manage the emotions that pregnancy creates and any possibly negative comments about pregnancy from friends and family (Lynn, 2011). Caused by depression and isolation, teenage motherhood has been associated with problems such as low self-efficacy, poor knowledge of child development, increased stress, depression, insecurity, and disorganized attachment patterns (Schmidt, 2009). When teenage mothers receive encouragement from their social support systems to try new things, they are likely to gain a higher level of self-esteem and self-confidence (Bowman, 2012).
Teenage pregnancy is a national problem that affects the community and society at large (Spear, 2004). According to Farber (2003), the individual and social costs of teenage pregnancy increasingly result from young single women choosing to keep and raise their children, often with compromised means to support and nurture them. Adolescent mothers become economically dependent due to school failure, high fertility rates, and the increased presence of single-parent families (Brindis and Philliber, 2003). Not only is teenage pregnancy economically costly, but it has various social consequences for teenage mothers. Becoming a teenage mother has been associated with low educational attainment, which often leads to poverty and / or early school leaving (Meade and Ickovics, 2005). Pregnancy is a common reason for high school students to drop out of high school (Brindis and Philliber, 2003). Pregnant high school students are more likely to have lower career aspirations, access less prestigious occupations, be less satisfied with career progress than their non-pregnant peers, and feel that their future job choices are limited (Desirae, 2005).
Adolescent mothers are more likely than older mothers to live in socio-economic deprivation, be dependent on benefits, and have lower levels of education and literacy. They are less likely to receive social support from friends, family members or the father of their children, and more likely to have mental health and substance abuse problems (Collins, 2010). According to Desirae (2005), many teenage mothers are less likely to get a job or go to university because teenage mothers often lack work experience, educational skills and vocational training, they are less competitive in the labor market. As a result, many teenage mothers are disproportionately poor, dependent on public assistance to support them economically (Rothenberg & Weissman, 2012).
Teen pregnancy rates vary from state to state, and they appear to be influenced by two different factors. In general, states with the highest number of adolescents tend to have the highest number of teenage pregnancies (Guttmacher, 2010). The academic performance of the adolescent parent and child is also severely affected by teenage pregnancy. Children born from teenage pregnancy are also more likely to have lower scores on math and reading tests, and are more likely to be kept in school (Pilar, 2011). Pilar (2011) argued that teenage mothers do not receive the education to which they are entitled.It it has been suggested that early school leaving is a unique predictor of teenage pregnancy and a precursor rather than a consequence of pregnancy (Pilar, 2011). According to Hosie (2007), pregnant schoolgirls are bullied by teachers or other students who have contributed to their aversion to school. Students with poor school attendance who do not like school before pregnancy have a negative attitude on the part of their schools about disclosing their condition and are less likely to stay in school than those who had good attendance before (Hosie, 2007).
1.2. statement of the problem
It is observed that teenage pregnancy has remained persistent in our local communities due to various contributing factors and has had negative impacts on the lives of the adolescents involved, for example, Spear (2011) argues that teenage mothers are likely to not complete secondary education (i.e. secondary education) non-completion of secondary education limits life-earning potentials among the adolescent population, which could perpetuate the cycle of impoverishment among them.
Based on this, the study is therefore designed to investigate the causes and influence of teenage pregnancy on the academic performance of high school female students in the Ondo West local government area of Ondo State.
1.3. Purpose of the study
The main objective of the study is to investigate the Causes and influence of teenage pregnancy on the academic performance of female students at secondary school in the South Akure local government area of Ondo State
Specifically, the study will be ;
- 1 Identify the causes of teenage pregnancy on academic performance of female students in secondary schools in Ondo West Local Government.
- To determine the kind of attitude that female secondary school students have towards the risk behavior of teenage pregnancy.
- To examine the relationship between teenage pregnancy and the academic performance of female students in secondary schools in Ondo West Local Government Area of Ondo State.
1.4. Research questions
Five research questions were raised to guide this study. They are as follows:
- What are the effect of early pregnancy on education and the academic performance of female students in Ondo West local government area of Ondo State Ondo state?
- What are the causes of teenage pregnancy among female students in Ondo West local government Area Ondo State
- Willpoor academic aspiration be an effect of teenage pregnancy among female secondary school students in Ondo West Local Government Area?
- Will low class attendance be an effectof teenage pregnancy among female secondary school students on teenage pregnancy in Ondo West Local Government Area?
- What is the attitude of female secondary school students toward the risk behaviour of teenage pregnancy?
- To determine the precautionary measures of preventing the teenage pregnancy?
1.5. Significance of the study
The use of any research study is to improve the area immediately concerned with the study and the society at large. The significance of the study cannot be over-emphasized. This study identifies and examines performance of female secondary school students in Ondo West Local government area and it is therefore, hoped that the result of this study would help to achieve the following.
To provide vital information on the possible causes and effects on teenage pregnancy on their academic performance. Such information is very vital in providing lasting solution to the problems.To help parents and teenager to clearly understand the adverse effects of teenage pregnancy with all of its implications.To provide adequate information to every school in the local government area under study, concerning the various methods that can be used to avoid or prevent teenage pregnancy which could lead to school dropout among the students (especially the sexually active ones). This will go a long way in enabling the students to accomplish that educational and career prospects.
As already seen above on the justification, the outcome of this very important study has provided a more precise understanding of how teenage pregnancy influences school dropout and how that affects the education of the girl child in this particular region, the causes of teenage pregnancy as well as the possible remedies that can be employed to control the problem.
Those most likely to benefit from the findings of this study are the Ministry of Education and the school management authorities, especially in the formulation and strengthening of policies that guard teenage pregnancies in schools and the possible re-admission of the affected girls back to school. The civil society is another potential beneficiary of the outcome of this study in their course of championing for the rights of the girl child in attaining education, while working towards narrowing down the gender disparities in the education system.
This study has also helped create an environment of clear understanding of teenage pregnancies in schools, singling it out for clarity as one of the major causes as opposed to the many reasons that may cause school dropout. It has also given more weight on what has been ignored over time and in the process is expected to catch the attention of those concerned.
1.6. Scope of the study
The scope of this study is limited to Ondo West Local Government Area. To this end, interview and questionnaire will be used to collect information from the general public in determining the factors responsible for the increase in teenage pregnancy.
It was also focus on the implications of teenage pregnancy on the individuals involved and their academic performance as well as the society.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
2.1. Theoretical framework
Social cognitive theory, related to social lear