study is carried out in order to examine the causes and effects of poor
reading habits among junior secondary school students in Ikpoba Okha
Local Government Area of Edo State. It has been observed that most JSS
students cannot read, for this reason it is the intension of the
researcher to look at those factors that make reading a difficult
problem for students to examine that likely affects their reading
difficult and the nation at large as well as the suggest solutions to
this reading difficulty and the nation at large as well as the suggest
solutions to this reading difficulty as reading underlines all teaching
activities in the schools. This investigation was based on some
questions. The analysis of the data collected culminate in the following

  1. That non availability of teaching aid and reading materials in school contributed to the reading disability.
  2. That physical and mental defects among students also leads to poor reading habits.
  3. That the teachers methods of teaching can impede reading progress.
  4. That poor reading upbringing and lack of motivation from parents and teachers hinders reading ability.
  5. And
    that the effect of poor reading habits is the cause of failure in the
    examinations. Based on these findings, the researcher makes some
    suggestions and recommendations on how to overcome the problems in order
    to improve students speech and comprehension.     

Chapter One
1.1         Background to the study
1.2         Statement of problem
1.3         Purpose of the study
1.4         Significant of the study
1.5         Scope of the study
1.6         Research question
1.7         Limitation of the study
1.8         Definition of terms
Chapter Two
2.1     Review of literature
2.2     The concept of administration
2.3     School staff personnel
2.4     School funds/finances
2.5     School physical facilities and equipment
2.6     School community relation
2.7     Indiscipline among students
2.8     Summary of literature review
Chapter Three
Research Methodology
3.1     Design of the study
3.2     Population of the study
3.3     Sample and sampling techniques
3.4     Instrumentation
3.5     Validation of instrument
3.6     Method of data collection
3.7     Method of data analysis
Chapter Four
Data presentation and analysis discussion of results
Chapter Five
5.1     Summary
5.2     Conclusion
5.3     Recommendation
any society, it is not easy to find any skill work that does not
require reading ability. Reading is an important pre-occupation of
students from the lowest level to the highest level of education.
Reading is a tool for understanding all subjects in every course of
study in our schools. Terry Thomas (1967) saw reading as the
interpretation of printed or written symbols into speech, reading is the
ability to interpret printed materials from page.
It is a
decoding process by which written words are translated in order to gain
meaning. Reading helps to gain experience through which an individual
may expand understanding of him, or herself and others. According to
Conge (1929), reading is a specialized and complex skill involving a
number of more general or lesser skill, it is also the ability to
carryout the patterned shaped unit mark on paper with language. Reading
cannot take place without language or at least the capacity for language
certain special cases reading is a difficult a train all over the world
particularly with the second use of language.
Reading is one of
the four basic skills which combine to form what is generally called a
complex system of element and symbols through which we communicate and
interact with other people. Reading has shown to be an essential skill
for facilitating a multitude of day to day task and promoting an easily
accessible means for creation to today’s society.
According to
Buzan (1987) learned man all over the world have realized that without
efficiency in reading acquire and application of knowledge of skills can
hardly be practiced, the subject of poor reading habits and its effect,
it a matter of great interest of the researcher and concern to teachers
education and administration. As a result there is a consensus among
the general public that the standard of English has fallen. There are
two main types of reading, the silent reading and the loud reading in
the silent reading, the reader reads without movement of the lips and
without the movement of the head side to side. All information gathering
are conceived in the readers mind. In loud reading, the reader reads
out words for others to hear minding all the necessary punctuations.
has however been observed that many students especially those in the
junior secondary seldom read effectively, sometimes many of the students
are held back in their study by slow reading speed. Some read more
quickly to themselves than they do aloud. The focal point of this study
lies basically on the factors that are responsible for poor reading
habits among junior secondary school students and the effect it has on
their reading ability.          
earlier time to present, there have been different causes of poor
reading habits among junior secondary school students. The nature of
reading ability is very complex from observation, one could risk the
generalization that most student do not know how to read and as a result
they are faced with reading problems especially during examination
periods. The researcher discovered that during her teaching practice
that many of the students were not able to read their textbooks properly
and the notes given to them in the various subject and even the
question papers of their examination. As a result of this poor reading
habit they failed woefully in their examinations if the questions were
not read to them. This reasons prompted my choosing this topic, causes
and effect of poor reading habit among junior secondary school students.
skill has over the years been a difficult and demanding task, it is
important to note that there are many complex problems that many result
in poor reading habit among students. It could be school attended by
students, the environment he or she reads and the physiological factors.
Some students tends to read poorly because of their inability to
discover their reading problems, I elementary schools for example,
children are taught to read by look and say method. The method results
in excessive occupation with words and their sound and there is
therefore lack of silent reading. Lack of good motivation by parents and
teachers also affects the student ability to read. Bad method of
teaching which has result from unqualified teachers can actually develop
into undesirable habits in reading. It is therefore necessary to find
out from student and teachers those problems they encounter during the
course of reading.  
objective of this study is geared towards surveying and identifying the
causes and effects of poor reading habits among junior secondary school
in Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area of Edo State, despite the fact
that some teachers tend to be good in encouraging their students to
This study also tend to highlight systematically the
factors that are responsible for poor reading habit among junior
secondary schools and teachers in schools, reading and their roles in
fashioning the reading habit of students who pass through them. This
study is lastly, targeted towards making useful suggestions that will
help in the improvement of reading among junior secondary school

To facilitate the achievement of this study, the following research questions will be treated.
–      Does lack of teaching aids in secondary schools give room to poor reading habits?
–      Does physical and mental defects lead to poor reading habits?
–      Does poor reading habit among students result to performance in the examination?
–      Does low intelligence affect efficiency in reading?
–      Does bad teaching methods used by teachers causes poor reading habits among students?
importance of this study cannot be over emphasized. This study is
highly important because the result will be useful in changing the
reading habits of junior secondary school students in Ikpoba Okha Local
Government Area of Edo State. T he study will be beneficial to teachers
beause it will serve as a guide to the teachers and also the students
and their society at large to develop and update themselves with the new
method of teaching and reading so as to avoid the out-dated methods
which will yield no positive result. This study is important to the
society because it will enhance the standard of education as students
will be equipped with a “master key” to unlock the doors that lead to
learning and enlightenment. It will also accelerate the interest of
parents in their children’s education. To the researcher, this study
will help to know the problems that are hampering effective reading and
also it will help to get first hand information on the causes and effect
of poor reading habit among junior secondary school students.
Causes: That which produces an effect a person or thing that makes something happen.
Effect: A change, produced by an action or a cause.
Poor: Having something only in a very small quantities.
Reading: The act of been able to interpret or understand something written or printed.
Habit: A thing that a person does often and almost without thinking, especially something that is hard to stop doing.
Retardation: To check or hinder progress or development.
Slacken: A process of making reading gradually become slower,m weaker or less active in the process of reading.
Hanger: A process of being restricted, of movement activities or achievement of something by causing difficulties.


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