AVAILABILITY AND UTILIZATION OF ELECTRONIC MEDIA RESOURCES IN TEACHING ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of Contents
List of Tables
List of Appendices
List of Abbreviations
Operational Definition of Terms xvi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study
1.2 Statement of the Problem
1.3 Objectives of the Study
1.4 Research Questions
1.5 Research Hypotheses
1.6 Basic Assumptions
1.7 Significance of the Study
1.8 Scope of the Study
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.2 Conceptual Framework
2.2.1 Concept of English Language
2.2.2 Concept of Electronic Media
2.2.3 Students‟ Performance in English Language
2.3 Theoretical Framework
2.4 English Language Curriculum for Senior Secondary Schools
2.5 Historical Background of Electronics media in teaching and learning
2.5.1 Types of Electronic Media
2.5.2 Sources of Electronic Resources
2.6 Utilization of electronic media in teaching and learning of English
Language in Secondary Schools 36
2.6.1 Factors influencing utilization of electronic media in teaching
2.6.2 Teachers Electronic media usage
2.6.3 Types of Electronic media usage
2.7 Electronic media in teaching English language
2.7.1 Constraints of the use of electronic media in teaching and learning English language 55
2.7.2 Media and technology as cognitive tools
2.8 Empirical Studies
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.2 Research Design
3.4 Sample and Sampling Techniques
3.5.1 Validity of the Instrument
3.5.2 Pilot Study
3.5.3 Reliability of the Instrument
3.6 Procedure for Data Collection
3.7 Procedures for Data Analysis
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
4.2 Descriptive analysis of Respondents‟ Bio-data
4.3 Solutions to research questions
4.4 Test of hypotheses
4.5 Summary of major findings
4.6 Discussion of Findings
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.5 Contribution to knowledge
5.6 Suggestions for further Research
1.1 Background to the Study
Electronics media are considered as important instrument in modern world in facilitating quality instruction. The use of electronic media facilities has become a necessity for improving quality in teaching and learning in schools. Electronic media resources are indispensable and have been accepted as part of the contemporary world, especially in the advanced countries to the extent of given a new phase to the education system in terms of pedagogical approach (Okafor, 2009).The Federal Ministry of Education (FME, 2010) recognizes the prominent role of electronic media in the modern world and has integrated electronic media into education in Nigeria. It emphasis that at the secondary school, computer education is made a pre-vocational elective which is part of electronic media devices.
English language is not only Nigeria‟s official language and medium of international interaction but also the language of instruction and reference throughout the entire educational system. Thus, competence in English language assumes great importance for students as it directly affect the level of progress attainable irrespective of aptitude in their particular fields. Egbe (2009) posit that competence in English language is an essential pre-requisite for educational and career success. As an official language in Nigeria, English is used for all government transaction both oral and written and it is one of the languages in which information is stored and retrieved from electronic media, hence it is important that the English language is well taught in schools particularly at secondary schools level.
The advents of information and Communication technology in schools have resulted in the presence of electronic media in the English language classroom or language laboratory. The effect of media resources can be experienced at all levels and forms of education. Educators, teachers and instructors are discovering that the instructional delivery process in using electronic media environment (classroom or English laboratory), is different from the traditional classroom; despite, the relevance of electronic media resource to instruction; teachers and resources to harness the potentials to teach English language effectively. However, there is serious concern over the level of awareness of use of electronic media devices to instruct students in English language. This is characterized by possibly socio-economic and teacher‟s ability.
Availability of electronic media resources in secondary school will help to effectively teach and learn the English language (Alex, 2012).The adequacy of those resources poses another serious concern while it is true that government has not done much direct intervention to make electronic media resources widely available in schools. There is no doubt that governments have of recent signified intention to intensify the use of instructional materials in secondary schools. But evidence obtained from literature has revealed that the level of availability and use of electronic media resources for teaching and learning in Ekiti state secondary school is an issue of worried. For instance few schools have English laboratory. The few secondary schools that have the laboratory, teacher‟s skilfulness is doubtful.
The level of utilization of the resources is also a serious concern to enhance student‟s performance in English language examination. Evidence abounds to justify that many students or candidates (during standardize examination) could not answer half of the questions, not because of time factor, but inability to confidently and independently attempt the English language question (Aremu, 2014). Also, students‟ performances in recent external examination (WAEC, NECO, NABTEB, 2013, 2014) have shown great concern over the poor performance of students in English language. Similarly students‟ negative attitude towards the subject coupled with their poor academic achievement in the subject have also warranted discussion and seeking for relevant use of modern resources in class instruction. Having this media resource in schools is one thing, using it for instruction is another thing. The study is therefore an attempt to assess the availability and utilization of electronic media resources for teaching English language at senior secondary schools in Ekiti state .
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Spoken English as it is being taught at the Secondary Schools is hampered by the poor instructional materials and methods. These problems as perceived could be as a result of the teaching methods adopted on the part of the teachers which greatly affect the way learners comprehend the spoken aspect of English language. This has in turn led to students imbibing the wrong information and passing same to the general public during communication.
Evidence obtained from relevant literature had revealed that the level of availability and utilization of electronic media facilities for teaching and learning English language in educational institution is an issue of serious concern. For instance between 2012–2014, only six schools Barewa College Zaria, Science Secondary School Kufena, G.S.S Kagoro, Capital School Kaduna, Queen Amina School and Government Girls Science School Soba are found to have well equipped language laboratory in Ekiti state , (NBTE, 2014). The effort of government in the provision of electronic devices such as computers, radios, projectors, televisions, internet and other to serve as instructional materials is far from satisfactory to achieve meaningful teaching and learning of English language. In a situation where 80% of students in school are taught without adequate used of instructional materials to improve students‟ academic performance, especially in English language (Ayoji, 2013), where it is available, it is usually in few quantity and quality and the utilization to the maximum teaching and learning process is a source of concern in schools today.
Despite the inherent advantages of these electronic resources in teaching and learning, the extent to which schools in Nigeria have benefited in attaining teaching English language effectively is yet to manifest (Sweeny, 2010). It is obvious; teachers depended mostly on textbooks and chalk board in teaching the subject as instructional materials, while other relevant instructional materials such as maps and charts, overhead projectors, televisions, computers, radios, television and pictures were neglected, perhaps, possibly due to their insufficiency in schools. These deplorable situations affect the strategies and methodology application in teaching English language.
Advances in technology has brought instructional materials especially electronic materials to the forefront as the most tools of globalization which have affected the classroom teaching/learning situation positively. New technological breakthrough such as Audio, Audio visual electronic materials are important landmark in knowledge transfer. With this facilities and equipments, teaching and learning English language became very pleasant experiences and less stressful. Notable problems could be poor quality of teachers in terms of qualification and competence based to make use of this modern technology (electronic media). It is important to remark that teachers‟ inability or shortfall to make use of technologies should not serve as an excuse to retard student‟s acquisition of this core subject (English language) at credit level in schools. The study therefore is to assess the availability and utilization of electronic media resources in teaching and learning English language in senior secondary schools in Ekiti state , Nigeria.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The study is set to achieve the following objectives, to:
- examine the availability of electronic media resources used in teaching English language in senior secondary schools in Ekiti state .
- identify the various types of electronic media resources used in teaching English language in secondary schools in Ekiti state .
- ascertain teachers and students level of awareness of the available electronic media resources in senior secondary school in Ekiti state .
- investigate the extent of utilization of electronic media resources for the teaching of English language in senior secondary schools in Ekiti state .