ATTITUDE OF FEMALE UNDERGRADUATES TOWARD SEXUAL HARASSMENT

ABSTRACT
Sexual harassment has been a
global phenomenon even in our present modern era. It is a common problem in
education settings despite the various mechanisms and policies put in place to
address the social impacts. The research therefore focus on the attitude of female
undergraduate towards sexual harassment.
The study adopted a descriptive
cross – sectional survey method. A multistage random sampling techniques was
used to elicit information from 200 respondents in Ekiti state university Ado – Ekiti with the use
of a structured questionnaire and an in – depth interview in some cases. The
data generated were analyses quantitatively with the use of chi – square and
SPSS for analysis running.
The result of the hypothesis
tested revealed that age is a significant factor that influence under graduate
engagement in harassment. The hypothesis two with X2tab co –
efficient of 26.926 at P<0.05 level of significance revealed that education
level (Illiteracy) constitute a factor that lead to sexual harassment. It was
evident that sexual harassment has serious implication for students and grave consequence
that go beyond the campus community. It was recommended that young people
particularly girls should always comfort themselves in a decent and responsible
manner.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
                                                                             
Title                                                                                       
Certification                                                                             
Dedication                                                                                
Acknowledgements                                                                  
Abstract                                                                                   
Table of Contents                                                                     
CHAPTER ONE
1.0       
Introduction                                                                 
1.1     Background to the Study                                             
1.2       
Statement
of the Problem                                               
1.3       
Objectives
of the Study                                                  
1.4       
Significance
of the Study                                               
1.5     Scope of the Study                                                         
1.6     Definition of Term                                 
CHAPTER TWO
2.0       
Literature
Review and Theoretical Framework               
2.1       
Literature
Review                                                           
2.2     Theoretical Framework                                                   



CHAPTER THREE
3.0     Research Methodology                                                   
3.1     Research Design                                                            
3.2     Population of the Study                                                 
3.3     Research   Study Area/Study
Site                                 
3.4       
Sample
Size and Sampling Techniques                        
3.5     Data Collection                                                              
3.6     Data Analysis                                                                 
CHAPTER
FOUR
4.0     Data Presentation and Analysis                                     
4.1     Socio Economic Characteristics of Respondents
           
4.1.1  Distribution of Respondents by Residence and
          who they Reside with                                                         
4.2     Respondents View on Knowledge about Sexual
          Harassment                                                                    
4.3     Respondents View on what Constitute Sexual
          Harassment                                                                    
4.3.1     Respondents view on Indecent Dressing                     
4.4     Respondent View on Attitude towards Sexual
          Harassment                                                                    
4.5     Respondents View on Influence on Practice of
          Sexual Harassment                                                      
4.6     Hypothesis Tested using cross Tabulation
          Variables (chi square)                                                     
CHAPTER FIVE
5.0     summary, conclusion and recommendations                 
5.1        Summary                                                                    
5.2        Conclusion                                                                 
5.3        Recommendations                                                      
          References                                                                      

Questionnaire
                                       

CHAPTER
ONE
1.0      
INTRODUCTION
1.1    BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Sexual harassment in
educational settings is a common problem globally.While it is well addressed in
college and university campuses in most developed countries of the world
through specific policies and mechanism of enforcement. It remains a taboo
topic in African colleges and universities particularly in Nigeria
(Okeke, 2011)
In view of this, sexual
harassment has posed a tremendous challenge to female both in the work place
and educational setting and this problem has affected their effectiveness in
their various academic fields. However, literature reports that sexual
harassment has impacted female’s self-esteem as well as their academic , social
and psychological well being (Ladebo, 2005, Mashingaidze, 2006 and Poporich,
2008). The awareness of the impact of sexual harassment on females existence
has led to multiple approaches in the definition of sexual harassment across
cultures, ethnicity, race and settings.
According to Ademolekun (1989)
sexual harassment in Nigeria’s
universities appears to be under researched and even less reported. However, the
commission on the review of Higher Education in Nigeria (CRHEN) (1991) suggests
that the phenomenon is gradually assuming critical dimensions in Nigeria’s
higher institutions. A study of four Nigerian universities reveals that
students identified sexual harassment as being among the stressors hindering
academic work in the sample of universities (Ladebo, 2001). This contentious
issue came to the fore in 2001, when the nation’s president, General Olusegun
Obansanjo in apparent disregard of protocol during an official engagement, ridiculed
the Nigerian university teachers for being unproductive pleasure seekers who sees
the female students as sex objects for self gratification.
Despite the above efforts and
measured by various instruments, sexual harassment means different things to
different people. However, before the problem can be addressed, one needs to
understand its meaning, nature and scope. Unfortunately, defining sexual
harassment is not simple. Defining what is sufficiently severe, persuasive or
objectively offensive can be complicated. People disagree on the severity of
the problem. What is a laughing matter for one student, maybe offensive to another
and traumatic to yet another, especially in a university community which teams
with students and staff from diverse backgrounds.    
The problem of definings sexual
harassment is likely to discourage victims from reporting incidents and make it
difficult for institutions to draw the line between flirting playful courtship
and sexual harassment. Houreld (2006) found that eighty (80) percent of female
in Nigeria
higher education institutions reported sexual harassment as their greatest
challenge in the successful completion of their academic goals. Adedokun (2004)
and Ejiogu and Onyene (2000) also found that above eighty-six (86) of male
faculty and staff in the sample universities in Nigeria have sexually harassed
female students at one point in their teaching career.
To date, the same general
principles that apply to sexual harassment in the work place also apply in
academic settings. In additions, there is difficulty drawing the line between
sexual harassment and intimate consensual relations (Hutchens, 2003). A
reviewed by Hutchens (2003) as well discussed that even through institutions of
higher educations have established policies regarding consensual relationship
between students and faculty, the area as a matter of law is still considered
“gray”. In general, sexual harassment of students in colleges and universities
“Increasingly justified disciplinary actions against a faculty or staff member
generally under a charge of unethical conduct” (cole 1986).
Therefore, to facilitate a
frontal attack on the problem, there is need for some agreement on what
constitutes sexual harassment. Thus, this study will focuses on the challenge
of defining sexual harassment. It is assumed that the victims and potential
victims are in a good position to provide information on those acts / gestures
that they have experienced or perceived as constituting sexual harassment. As
vicarious and witnesses of sexual harassment, respondents were expected to
express their reaction and suggest possible solutions.
1.2      
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Sexual harassment is an in
disciplinary problem which negatively affects. Adams, Kohiker and Padgitt
(1983) expressed that sexual harassment of students by lecturers has become a
controversial issue facing college and university administrations in the last
several years. However, the problem which is a pervasive one is difficult to
pin down because of the different manifestations. Identifying an incident as an
instance of sexual harassment requires some special combinations of variables.
This is so because there seems to be discrepancy in peoples’ perception as to
what types of interactions constitutes sexual harassment. Females, for example
categories more behaviors as constituting sexual harassment that male (Wilson
and Krans, 1981).
In a nutshell, it appears that
sexual harassment in educational institutions and workplace can be understood
and defined in many different ways making it all the more complicated to
prevent and address the issue. Its definition is problematic, with no consensus
as to what constitutes sexual harassment, particularly in Nigeria where
little national attention has been paid to the problem. Students are likely to
be at loss when a professor’s friendly concern starts to feel like a demand for
a sexual relationship that they do not want but are afraid to reject.
Sexual harassment is all too
familiar and yet, defies a simple definition, it is therefore expedient to
identify and define what constitutes sexual harassment and evolve the
definitions from among the targets of sexual harassment in educational institutions.
As real and vicarious victims of sexual harassment and as a way of validating
their definitions, it is necessary to determine their reaction to the harassing
behavior as defined by them. As real vicarious and potential targets, they were
likely to suggest solutions to the  problem.
The behavioral definition of sexual harassment, to be considered sexual
harassment, the behavior in question must be:
(1)      Sexual in nature or sex-based
(2)      Deliberate or repeated
(3)      Not welcomed, not asked for, not returned
1.3      
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The general objective of this
study is to examine the female undergraduate attitude towards sexual
harassment.
Specifically, the study aim to:
(1)         
Investigate
what constitutes sexual harassment among female undergraduate students.
(2)         
Evaluate
the knowledge of female undergraduate on sexually harassing behavior
(3)         
Investigate
the influence of sexual harassment on female undergraduate in Ekiti-state
university
(4)         
Formulate
recommendation with a view to reduce sexual harassment.
(5)         
Examine
the cause of sexual harassment.
1.4      
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study is designed to
examine how academic field influence the perceived sexual harassment
experienced by female undergraduate in Ekiti-State University.
To accomplish this task, the study will investigate what constitutes sexual
harassment and the knowledge of female undergraduate in an academic field on
sexual harassing behaviour.
Thus it is true that the way of
sexual harassment is not easy, yet there are thousand who have sexual
harassment behind and have become “new creatures” many have married and raised
families while others remain celebrate, yet live joyful life.
It was hoped that the study
would enable policy makers to create or improve policy initiatives that protect
the right of female undergraduate in Ekiti
State University
and across other higher education institutions.
1.5    SCOPE OF THE STUDY
          This study work shall discuss the concept of sexual
harassment, focusing mainly on its prevalence among female undergraduates. The
history of sexual harassment shall be traced from the inception to the present.
          The gathering of views on the subject matter shall be
restricted to Ekiti
State university with
reference to female undergraduate from each of the Faculty and department of
students.
1.6    DEFINITION OF TERM
          Sexual Harassment:  Sexual
harassment is defined in this study as unwelcome sexually determined behaviour,
physical, showing of pornography and sexual demands whether by words or by
actions that constitutes a health and safety problem, which when objected could
disadvantage the victim in her connection with her students including
recruitment or promotion, or create a hostile study environment (United Nations
General  Recommendation into the
convention on the elimination of all forms or Discrimination Against women).
          Sexual Harassment is defined as unwanted physical or verbal
sexual behaivour that occur in the context of a relationship of unequal power
and is experience as a threat to the victims job or education activities
(Martin, 1989).

                      

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