ASSESSMENT OF METHODS AND RESOURCES FOR TEACHING AND LEARNING ECONOMICS IN ESE-ODO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ONDO STATE

ASSESSMENT OF METHODS AND RESOURCES FOR TEACHING AND LEARNING ECONOMICS IN ESE-ODO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ONDO STATE  

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page                                                                                         
Certification                                                                                   
Dedication                                                                                      
Acknowledgment                                                                             
Table of Contents                                                                             
Abstract                                                                                           
CHAPTER ONE
Introduction                                                                                              
Background of the study                                                                            
Statement of the problem                                                                 
Objective of the Study                                                                    
Research Questions                                                                           
Significance of the study                                                                             
Delimitation of the study                                                                   
Definition of Terms                                                                                  
CHAPTER TWO
Reviewed of related literature                                                           


CHAPTER THREE
Research Methodology                                                                     
Research Design                                                                                
Population of the study                                                                    
Sample and Sampling Techniques                                                   
Procedure for Data Collection                                                                   
Data Analysis Techniques                                                            
Validity and Reliability of
Instrument                                                       
CHAPTER FOUR
Data Analysis and Results                                                               
Summary of findings                                                                       
CHAPTER FIVE
Summary, Conclusion and
Recommendations                                 
Summary                                                                                     
Conclusion                                                                                       
Recommendations                                                                                     
References                                                                                        
Appendix



ABSTRACT
This study was carried out to assess
the methods and resources for teaching and learning economics in Ese-Odo Local
Government Area of Ondo State. Ten schools out of thirty secondary schools in
the studied area were used. Questionnaires were distributed to economics
teacher to collect their opinion on methods and resources used for teaching
economics. Descriptive analysis and percentage were used to analyze the
collected data. The findings of the research showed that some methods of
teaching such as the lecture method, discussion, Socratic and story telling are
frequently used, some rarely used methods of teaching include the field trip
etc and some are never used for teaching economics e.g. the computer assisted
instruction, team teaching etc. Also, the study revealed that some resources
are frequently used e.g the use of charts, printed materials, some are rarely
used e.g. the use of community resources and resources persons, some are never
used for teaching and learning economic in the studied e.g the use of video
tape and video CD player, television, radio programme etc. Based on the
findings, some recommendations were made which would enhance the usage of some
rarely and never used methods and resources for teaching and learning economic
in Ese-Odo local government area. Some of the recommendations are: Organizing
workshops and Seminars to improve the knowledge of the teachers, proper
supervision by educational administrators and giving incentive to teachers
which would enable them in their commitment to work.



CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study
Teaching in this modern period has
grown in scope and in increasingly becoming more complex. Modern day teaching
is technical and transeeds the use of traditional methods and old fashioned
materials alone for actualizing effectiveness and efficiency. The development
in technology has led to the discovery of modern instructional resources to
complement teacher’s efforts in teaching. Some of the sources are still in use.
The curricular development has
extensively and frequently combined the use of traditional and modern resources
for teaching-learning process. Moreso, in the last fifteen years there are has
been developed several organizational practices used in various secondary
schools and the practices represent new idea about teaching and learning at the
secondary school level (Olorundare 2001)
Effective teaching-learning process
depends on good communication between the teachers and students. Verbal
instruction which seems to be the easiest means of instructional delivery
system besides real experiences is always very abstracts (Ijaiye in Ogun Seyi,
2000) since entire into schools with varying degree of ability and potentials,
teachers need instructional methods and resources that will consider individual
differences of learners through which effective communication can be enhanced.
The teaching of economics in
secondary schools can be effective and efficient through the use of relevant
instructional materials and instructional resources that will guide the
teacher. Teachers of various ages right from the early man’s era down to make
use of aids to produce better results in the teaching-learning process
(Adefemi, 2002). In other words, the availability of different resources for
teaching-learning process is not as important as how the teacher uses them.
Economics is an important subject in
the school curriculum, West African Examination Council (2004) economics
syllabus is to expose students to the basic economic principles as useful guide
to rational decision making relating to individuals,  businessman, government and society in
general, and to enhance their understanding and appreciation of economic field
of study but also as a practical subject. Also, the syllabus has the following
objectives for economic students (WAEC,2004)
Students are expected to be
acquainted with basic economic principles, concepts and the tools for economic
analysis;
Students shall be familiar with the
structure and functioning of economic institutions commercials industrial and
financial students are to understand the basis for rational economics
decisions;
Understand and be able to explain the
basis and structure of the West African Countries in international economic
relationships.
   Students
should appreciate the problems West African Countries encounter in their
economic development. Resources are materials that are capable of satisfying
human wants. In other words, they are materials that could assist man to
achieve a particular goal (Adefila, 2000). To a classroom teacher, resources
could be pieces of chalk, chalkboard, ruler, projector, films, or any of the
audio-visual aids that could help him to impart knowledge successfully. A
resource could be just become a resource until man discovers its uses to
increase satisfaction (Adefila, 2000), hence the level of technological
development determines to a large extent the level at which man can go in
interacting with his environment to explore and exploit the desired resources.
Resources of all kinds both human (teacher and resources persons in community)
and non-human (motion pictures, films trips, slide, charts and those of audio
and visual types) are of fundamental importance of the success of an
instructional programme (Ajayi, 2002) Ajiboye (2000) argued that modern
teaching and learning of economics demand that the necessary facilities, well
qualified teachers, suitable texts and instructional materials are needed to
achieve the aims and objectives of teaching economics at secondary school
level. (NPE 200 section A).
According to Olorishade (2002).
Methodology of teaching is the study and practice of various ways of imparting
knowledge. It is the study of different methods and the systematic ways of
presenting subject matter and learning experiences. However, many of the
methods of teaching have origins in the various learning the ones. To make a
success of various methods of teaching Fadairo, (2002) recommended that the
teacher should be imbedded with the understanding the theory and practice of
methodology.
Using the method to teach according
to the nature of the topic, the learners, the available resources in the school
are the environments; Considering the individual differences of the learner.
Developing a good report with the students, colleagues and the school
administration; and using the knowledge of child psychology and personality
development to determine the teaching procedure and evaluation technique to be
used.
Even before now, some researchers had
looked into the problems that result in the poor performance of the students in
economics. Various factors such as inadequate instructional aids, unqualified
teachers, nature of administration of the school by the ministry of education
etc. have been identified as contributing factors to the falling standard of
students in their performance in economics at secondary school level (Ayeni,
2000) and Samuel, 2003)
It has been observed that in
secondary schools, instructional resources have been limited to the teacher
himself and few non-human resources like chalkboard and charts which are yet to
bring full potentials of the students and also hinder the students to fully
cope with the academic challenges in this technological age. As quoted by
Fakomogbon (1999), we receive 75% of what we learn through sight. 13% of what
we learn through hearing, 6% of what we learn through touching, 3% through
feeling. It also follows that we remember 10% of what we read, 20% of what we
hear, 30% of what we see. 5% of what we see and hear, 30% of what we say, and
90% of what we say and do at the same time. In the same vain, instructional
methods include verbal exposition by the teacher or the verbal presentation of
ideas to the students. The bulk of knowledge gained in the school by the
students involve basic information about the content areas and teachers usually
pass on these pieces of information to the student through some methods
(Abimbola, 2001)
Therefore, the important of teaching
and learning resources and methods of teaching cannot be overemphasized to the
teachers, instructional resources can be easily taught taight using
instructional resources and suitable teaching method (Odewumi 2002)
Statement of the Problem
Studies have shown that students
perceive the study of economics as being difficult due to its abstract nature
and also because of inclusion of some concepts that are mathematical or
statistical in nature in secondary school syllabus. The focus of this study
therefore is to assess the methods and resources for teaching will look into
various method of teaching and also learning from which the assessment of the methods
and resources for teaching and learning in Ese-Odo local government area will
be made.
Objectives of the Study
          The study is to assess
i.                  
The
methods and resources used for teaching and learning in Ese-Odo local
government area of Ondo State
ii.                
Whether
the available method for teaching are frequently used, rarely used or never
used
iii.             
Whether
the various resources are frequently used, rarely used, or never used.
Research Questions
          These
research questions are designed to assess the methods and resources for
teaching and learning in economics in Ese-Odo Local government area of Ondo
State, The research questions are:
                    
What
are the available methods of teaching and learning in economics in Ese-Odo
local government area?
                    
What
are the available resources for teaching and learning in economics in Ese-Odo
local government area?
                    
Are
they available frequently rarely or never used?
Significance of the Study
          The significant of the study would be
helpful to the teacher, curriculum designers, the school administrators and
other educational stakeholders. Through this study, the economics teacher would
know those method and resources that are frequently used, methods and resources
could be improved upon, without neglecting those they have been used to
frequently
          The
school administrators would be able to make necessary provisions for the
resources used for teaching, through this, the teachers would and never use
resources effectively, in the same vain the stakeholders and the community
would be able to develop and make provision for some community resources which
could enhance the proper and frequent usage of the some methods of teaching for
example the field trip method.
Delimitation of the Study
          The research topic is the assessment
of resources (the visual, audio, audio visual and the human resources) and
method (e.g lecture method, discussion, discovery, field trip etc) for teaching
and learning economic in Ese-Odo Local Government Area of Ondo State. This
study is limited to the response and collected data from selected schools in
Eso-Odo Local Government Area. In this study, all economic teachers in the
selected schools are used.
Definition of Terms
          The operational definitions will be
given to some terms used in this research work. The terms are;
Assessment: It
entails an in-depth analysis for the purpose of evaluation through which
desirable results or outcome could be achived.
Methods: These
are the ways by which pieces of information are dissemination by teachers to
students in teaching-learning process.
Resources: These
are materials that we capable of satisfying one’s needs in order to achieve the
at down goals and objectives.                                             



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