ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES OF THREE TYPES OF MEDICATED SOAP ON STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS FROM WOUND INFECTION

ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES OF THREE TYPES OF MEDICATED SOAP ON STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS FROM WOUND INFECTION
 
CHAPTER ONE
1.0          
INTRODUCTION
Antibacterial
activity is the ability to either destroy or inhibit the growth of
microorganisms. This can be referred to as either cidal or static effects
respectively. This is significant with respects to the human body in preventing
sepsis and skin infections (Higaki et. al., 2000). Soap cleanses because
molecules are attracted to the fatty part of the anions of the soap solution
and are pulled off by dirty surface into water. Antiseptic soaps contain
additional ingredients, usually for the treatment of skin disorders (Eckburg et.
al.,
2005). Antiseptic soaps have germicidal substances like, irgasan,
trichlorocarbanlide, (TCC) etc, incorporated into them to enhance their
antibacterial activity (Friedman and Wolf, 1996). These germicidal substances
are added in a specific amount and their percentages are always stated on the
soap case or leaflet which contains the information on how to use the soap for
various purposes.
Normal microflora is found on the surface of all human skin
(Prescott et. al., 2008). The normal skin bacterial flora in human is
composed of three major groups of gram-positive bacteria: the coliform
bacteria
, the micrococci and the staphylococci with only a
minor component of gram-negative bacilli (Nobel, 1998). This is because the
skin is a comparatively dry habitat, with available water as the major factor
controlling growth. Occlusion of the skin is a potent way to increase the
number of bacteria on the skin (Breuer et al., 2002).
Staphylococcus species, though a common cause of
human infections are found as non-pathogenic microorganisms in human samples. Staphylococcus
aureus
is the most important member of this group (Diekema et. al., 2001)
and has been associated with different clinical conditions and syndromes (Javid
et. al., 2006). In Ikegbunam et al., (2013), Staphylococcus
aureus
is an opportunistic pathogen affecting both immunocompetent and
immunocompromised individuals frequently resulting in high morbidity and
complications which constitutes problems to health. It is a gram-positive,
non-spore forming cocci bacterium that is a member of the firmicutes, which are
found as normal human microbiota of the skin and nasal cavity. It is the most
frequently encountered bacterial species in hospitals (Emmerson, 2004). The
major reservoirs of Staphylococcus aureus in hospitals are colonized in
infected patients and hospitals workers (Javid et al., 2006). Carriers
of Staphylococcus aureus are at risk of developing endogenous infections
or transmitting infections to health care workers and patients. Its disease
manifestation ranges from minor skin infections to life threatening diseases
such as folliculitis, furuncle (boil), dermitis (eczema) carbuncle, ulcers,
pneumonia sepsis and wound infections. Staphylococcus aureus may also
cause food poisoning, scalded-skin syndrome and toxic shock syndrome (TSS)
through production of toxins.
Staphylococcus
aureus
is a gram-positive coccal bacterium that is a member of the Firmicutes, and is
frequently found in the nose, respiratory tract, and on the skin. It is often
positive for catalase and nitrate reduction. Although Staphylococcus aureus is not always pathogenic, it is a common
cause of skin infections such as abscesses, respiratory infections such as
sinusitis, and food poisoning. Pathogenic strain often promote infections by
producing potent protein toxins and expressing cell-surface protein that bind
and inactivate antibodies. The emergence of antibiotics – resistance forms of Staphylococcus aureus such as MRSA is a World
Wide problem in clinical medicine.
Staphylococcus
was first identified in 2000 in Aberdeen Scotland by the Surgeon Sir Alexander
Ogston in pus from a surgical abscess in a knee joint. This name was later
appended to Staphylococcus aureus by
Friedrich Julius Rosenbach, who was credited by the official system of
nomenclature at this time. An estimated 20% of the human population are
long-term carriers of Staphylococcus
aureus
which can be found as part of the normal skin flora and in
the nostrils.
Staphylococcus
aureus
is the most common species of Staphylococcus to cause Staphylococcus
infection and is a successful pathogen due to a combination of nasal carriage
and bacterial immunoevasive strategies. Staphylococcus
aureus
can cause a range of illnesses, from minor skin infections such as
pimples, impetigo, boils, cellulities, folliculities, carbuncles, scalded skin
syndrome, and abscesses, to life-threatening disease such as pneumonia,
meningitis, osteomyelitis, endocarditis toxic shock syndrome, bacteremia, and
sepsis.
It’s incidence ranges from skin,
soft tissue, respiratory, bone, joint, endovascular to wound infections. It is
still one of the five most common causes of hospital acquired infections and is
often the cause of post surgical wound infection each year, around 500,000
patients in United State Hospitals contract a Staphylococcal infections like Staphylococcus
aureus.
Staphylococcus infections
may cause disease due to direct infection or due to the production of toxins by
the bacterial. Boils, impetigo, food poisoning, cellulitis, and toxic shock
syndrome are all examples of diseases that can be caused by Staphylococcus.
Staphylococcus
aureus
is responsible for many Staphylococcal infections, but it may also occur as a commensal.
The presence of Staphylococcus aureus
does not always indicate infection. It can survive from hours to weeks, or even
months, on dry environmental surfaces, depending on strain. Staphylococcus aureus can infect tissues
when the skin or mucosal barriers have been 
breached. This can lead to many different types of infections, including
pimples, boils and carbuncles (a collection of boils). Staphylococcus aureus infection can spread through contact with
pus from an infected wound, skin-to-skin contact with an infected person by
producing hyaluronidase that destroy tissues, and contact with objects such as
towels, clothing or athletic equipment used by an infected person. Deeply
penetrating Staphylococcus aureus
infections can be severe. Prosthetic joints put a person at particular risk of
septic arthritis, and Staphylococcal
endocarditis (infection of the
heart valves) and pneumonia. Strains of Staphylococcus
aureus
can host phages such as PVL (produces Panton-valatine leukocidin),
that increases virulence.
Staphylococcus
aureus
is extremely prevalent in person with Atopic dermatitis. It is mostly found in
fertile active places, including the armpit hair and scalp. Large pimples that
appear in those areas may exacerbate the infection of lacerated. This can lead
to Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome. A severe form of this Ritter’s
disease; can be observed in neonates.
The presences of Staphylococcus aureus in persons with
atopic dermatitis is not an indication to treat with oral antibiotics, as
evidence has not shown this to give benefit to the patience. The relationship
between Staphylococcus aureus and
atopic dermatitis is unclear. Evidence shows that attempting to control Staphylococcus aureus with oral
antibiotics is not efficacious.
Staphylococcus
aureus
can survive on dog, cat, and horses, and can cause
bumble foot in chickens. Some believe health care workers dogs should be
considered a significant sources of antibiotic – resistance Staphylococcus aureus is one of the
casual agent of mastitis in dairy cows. Its large polysachainde capsule
protects the organism from recognition by the cows immune defenses.
Staphylococcus
aureus
belong to the family Staphylococcaceae. It affects all known mammalian species,
including human. Further due to its ability to effect wide range of species. Staphylococcus aureus can be readily
transmitted from one species to another. This includes transmission between
human and animals.
Staphylococcus
aureus
may commonly occur in the environment. Staphylococcus aureus is transmitted
through air droplets or aerosol. When an infection person cough or sneezes, he
or she releases numerous small droplets of saliva that remain suspended in air.
These contain the bacterial and can infect others.
Another common method of transmission is through
direct contact with objects that are contaminated by the bacterial or by the
bites from infected person or animals. Approximately 30% of healthy humans
carry Staphylococcus aureus in their
nose, back of the throat and on their skin (Hubert 2000, Alylitte G.A.J 2001).
1.1    AIM
OF THE STUDY
              
To isolate Staphylococcus aureus from wound infection.
              
To determine the antibacterial activity
of three medicated soap on Staphylococcus
aureus
isolated from wound infection.
1.2     STATEMENT OF STUDY
Since Dorland (2003) stated that
medicated soap have germicidal substances like chloroxylene pothaium, mercunic
widede trichloro-carberilide etc incorporated into them in order to greatly
their antibacterial activity. It is necessary to investigate the antibacterial
activity of three medicated soap (Delta Soap, Tetmosol Soap and Detol Soap) on Staphylococcus aureus isolated from
wound infection.
1.3     LIMITATION
OF THE STUDY
The
study is limited to three types of medicated soap which are:
           
Delta Soap
           
Tetmosol soap
           
Detol soap


1.4    SIGNIFICANT
OF THE STUDY
The result of the project work will
indicate the antibacterial activity of medicated. And if favourable, then
medicated soap can be used for cleansing and washing the surface of minor wound
for the application of further medication.
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