AN ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECT OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT) ON THE TEACHING AND LEARNING IN POLITICAL SCIENCE IN COLLEGE OF EDUCATION

AN ASSESSMENT OF  THE EFFECT OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT) ON THE TEACHING AND LEARNING IN POLITICAL SCIENCE IN COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 
ABSTRACT
The purpose of the study is to examine the role
of 1CT in teaching Political
Science in Tertiary
institution in Nigeria with a particular reference to the College of Education,
Ikere – Ekiti as a case study. ICT today is essential in all fact of human
endeavour, infact no person, group of individuals, organizations, be it
government or  non-governmental
organization that does not use or interact with ICT on a daily basis,
The role of information
and communication technology in teaching and learning n tertiary institutions
is on the high increase, to the extent that developing countries cannot be left
out in this trend. Therefore, the use of ICT is rapidly becoming one of the
lost important and widely discussed issues in contemporary education policy
around tie world. Most experts in the field of education agreed that when
information and communication technology is used in the teaching and learning
process, it will improve and boost the ego of the schools to a large extent.
The study make use descriptive statistics as a method of gathering data, also
the data collected are analyze through the use of simple percentage, from the
analysis in the preceding chapter it is evident that the impact of ICT in
teaching political science in tertiary institutions in Nigeria with a
Darticular reference to College of Education, Ikere – Ekiti cannot be under
look. Therefore, the alternative hypothesis, is hereby accepted and we reject
the mill Hypothesis, the study recommend that students and teachers should
appreciate the opportunities that are available in ICT to further facilitate
the teaching and study of political science.
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE                                                                                                  
CERTIFICATION                                                                                                  
DEDICATION                                                                                                            ACKNOWLEDGMENT                                                                                            
TABLE OF CONTENT                                                                                              
ABSTRACT                                                                                                    
CHAPTER ONE:
INTRODUCTION
Background of the study                                                                                          
Statement of the problem                                                                                   
Purpose of the study                                                                                         
Limitations of the study                                                                                     
Research questions                                                                                                          
Research hypothesis                                                                                          
Scope of the study                                                                                      
Significance of study                                                                                           
Definition of terms                                                                                                12-13
References                                                                                                               14
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE
REVIEW AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
Introduction                                                                                                            
Conceptual framework                                                                                        
Roles of ICT in Education                                                                          
Impact of ICT use on Classroom Teaching in tertiary
Institution              
Theoretical framework                                                                           
Review of related empirical studies
includes                                                 
·       
The Concept of Information and
Communication Technology
(ICT)                                                                                     
·       
Benefit of ICT in tertiary institution
in Nigeria                       
·       
Need for the Use of ICT in tertiary institution in
Nigeria              
·       
Maximizing Utility from ICT use in
Classroom                     
·       
The Roles of Teacher Education in
Facilitating Integration ICT in tertiary
·       
Challenges of Using ICT in college of education
Ikere-Ekiti    
·       
Summary of related literature review                                               
References                                                                                        
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH
METHOD
Research design                                                                                                     
Population of the study                                                                                       
The sample and sampling techniques                                                              
Instrumentation                                                                                              
Method of data collection                                                                               
Validity of the instrument                                                                                
Reliability of the instrument                                                                            
Procedure for data analysis                                                                            
References                                                                                                               
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA
ANALYSIS, REPRESENTATION AND INTERPRETATION
Data analysis                                                                                                          
Discussion of result                                                                                               
 CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY,
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Summary                                                                                                                 
Conclusion                                                                                                              
Appendix                                                                                                                 
References                                                                                                              
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
The training of teachers in different subject
areas as a discipline involves various methods of approach and operations. The
discipline of Political Science, centers on systematic study of the principles
and skills pertinent to all aspects of Politics, development, and
administration. As new concepts of learning have evolved, teachers and
lecturers are expected to facilitate learning and make it meaningful to
individual learners rather than just to provide knowledge and skills. Modern
developments of innovative technologies has provided new possibilities for
teaching profession, but at the same time have placed more demands on lecturers
and teacher to learn how to use these new technologies in their teaching
(Robinson and Latchem, 2003). These challenges task teacher to continuously
retrain themselves and acquire new knowledge and skills while maintaining their
job (Carlson and Gadio, 2002). Then what can be done to help teachers meet
these challenges? Indeed, we are left with no option other than to train them.
The integration of ICTs in teaching of political science as a course in
tertiary institutions came as a burning need on how to improve on the physical,
social, political, cultural, scientific and technological environment that we
live in. Political science as a course is relatively new in Nigerian Schools.
Though, Political Science has been in use since 1905 in America, but the
subject was accorded official recognition in the report of the Committee on
Political Science of the commission on the re-organization of Secondary
Education on the National Education Association of the United States, Therefore
in 1916, the earliest definition of Political Science emerged. It was defined
as those whose subject matter relates directly to the organization and development
of human society and to man as a member of social groups (Cross, 1958).
Teachers are often
accused of conservation or always engaged in too much verbal means of
communication and selling of study materials popularly called handouts. This
means excessive use of words to convey meanings, unfortunately some of us do
love to hear the sound of our voices, so much so that we forget to consider
whether or not students are really understanding and enjoying whatever we are
saying. The problem is that we tend to talk too much without really saying
anything. We also tend to “talk at” our students instead of tending
to “talk with” them. Thus, we keep on talking regardless of students’
non-verbal signals that they are bored or even completely lost. Methods of teaching
are planned activities involved in the presentation of curriculum, like the
lecture, project, discussion, tutorial or discovery methods, are example of
bringing the learners into contact with the subject matter. The effectiveness
of this contact demands activities and materials. These may be in the form of
games; role-playing, demonstration and experiments, visit to real life
situation, real objects and specimen, symbolical and pictorial representation.
Teachers should
continually bear in mind that man learns through his senses. Some learn better
by one or the other of the senses. To some seeing is to believe. To others, the
senses of hearing, touch, smell and taste dominate in acquiring knowledge. For
the intended learning to take place, the teacher must communicate effectively
with the learners. In order to achieve this, the teacher must understand
something of the communication process to the extent that it will enhance a
wide choice of his channel of transmitting his message to his students. The best
way of helping students to learn is to bring them face to face with the world
which education intends to introduce to them. This is done by using real things
in real life situation. Where real life situations are not possible, the
alternative is for the teacher to use representation of real life situations.
Whether real or substitutes, they have a common goal. They help the teacher to
vary the intended message effectively and meaningfully to the learners so that
the learners receive, understand, retain and apply the experiences gained to
reach overall educational goal.
Instructional
materials, therefore constitute those things the teacher uses to teach and the
learners learn. They are the variety of materials which can be used to make our
lesson more vivid, interesting and more understandable to our students. They
result in more effective learning of factual information, and skills in less
time than mere verbalization (Eregha, 2008). The paper Study thus highlights
the need and applications of ICT as veritable teaching tools in the teaching
and learning of political science. The problem here is that the globalised
World, ICT tend to play major role in teaching – learning process. This we lack
in Nigeria and the inability of governments at all levels to incorporates
policies aimed at the application of ICT in teaching and learning, the falling
standard of education may not improved. Information and Communication
Technologies (ICT) equipment are the most appropriate instructional material in
the global world and Nigeria will benefit so much from the application of ICT
in the teaching and learning of political science and every other field of
study.
Michaelis (1956)
writing on the concept of  political
science, stated that it embraces materials which are related to human
relationships drawn from history, geography, economics, anthropology,
sociology, science and the arts. Students build competence in basic social
processes and skills essential in democratic living. To this end, Ololobo
(1986) posited that political science is anchored on effective citizenry of an
organized, integrated study of man and his environment, both physical and
social, emphasizing cognition, functional skills and desirable attitudes and
actions. Political Science is a response towards a goal-oriented education that
is geared towards sensitizing young people to solve personal and community
related problems with the use of ICTs, hence this research.
It is universally
accepted that political science students need the chance to develop faith, self-expression
and confidence. Also, they need the ability and skill to learn about
themselves, the societal problems and the wider communities in which they live.
Political science education has the following objectives to attain such as  creating an awareness and understanding of
our evolving political ,social and physical environment as a whole in its
natural, man-made cultural and spiritual resources together with the rational
use and conservation of those resources for national development, developing a
capacity to learn and to acquire certain basic skills including not only those
of listening, speaking, reading and writing and of calculation, but also those
skills of hand and head, together with those of observation, analysis and
inferences which are essential to the forming of sound social, economic and
political judgment, ensure the acquisition of that relevant body of knowledge
and information which is an essential pre-requisite to personal development as
well as to a positive personal contribution to the betterment of mankind,
developing a sympathetic appreciation of the diversity and inter-dependence of
all members of the local community and the wider national and international
community, developing in students positive attitudes of togetherness, comradeship
and co-operation towards a healthy nation, the inculcation of appropriate
values of honesty, integrity, hard work, fairness and justice at work and play
as ones contribution to the development of the nations, promotion of an
understanding of the social problems of their locality and finding possible
solutions to them, development of the ability to think reflectively and come to
independent conclusions, creation of awareness that discipline is essential for
an orderly society and , demonstration of flexibility and willingness to accept
necessary changes within a system. that is, education, government, or law, for
the good of all, (Federal Republic of Nigeria,1977, Adaralegbe, Aina, Adeyoyin,
Obilo and Ahmadu, 1982).
Osakwe and Itedjere (1993) stated that the
objectives of political science education in Nigeria may be categorized into
three broad areas namely, comparative politics of African state, information
learning, skills attitude and values learning. Writing further, they said that
there is no general consensus as to the goals of political science, but that
there is a general notion that political science has some influence on the
beliefs, and values of its learners and that it invariably produces good
citizens for the overall development of the nation and maintain external
relations with countries of the world.
STATEMENT OF 
THE PROBLEM
There is a universal recognition of the need to use Information and
Communication Technology (ICTs) in the educational systems of Nigeria in
teaching Political Science in tertiary institution as we are in the era of
digitalization where the free flow of information via satellite and the
internet hold sway in global dissemination of knowledge in diverse subject
area. Nigeria is very slow in embracing the integration of ICTs for teaching in
secondary school curriculum. A great deal of instructional and administrative
work in College of Education, Ikere 
Ekiti, were still carried out manually. This is as a result of lack of
high cost of computer hardware and software for their application, weak
infrastructures, selfish political ambition of individuals, diversion of fund
for other purposes in schools, inadequate skilled ICT professionals/teachers,
lack of appropriate organizational recognition, unwillingness of teacher to
adapt to new trends of teaching, inadequate fund to acquire furniture,
textbooks, befitting classroom, cost of subscription to the internet on a
regular basis are stumbling block on the ICTs in usage tertiary institutions.
Lecturers and teachers are often accused of
over-verbalization. This means excessive use of words to convey meanings. The
problem is that we tend to talk too much without really saying anything. We
also tend to “talk at” our students instead of tending to “talk
with” them. Thus we keep on talking regardless of students’ non-verbal
signals that they are bored or even completely lost. In this modern society, schools and higher institution needs ICTs to aid
their teaching and learning and educational management so as to meet up with
the technological development of the 21st Century. As a result of
the above the idea of the study was conceived to investigate the significance
of ICT in teaching Political Science in tertiary institution, College of
Education, Ikere Ekiti in particular.
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
1.     To examine the
impact of ICT in teaching Political Science in tertiary institution.
2.     Attitude of
students and lecturers towards the use of ICT in teaching and learning ICT
3.     To know the various
challenges and bottleneck confronting the use of ICT in teaching Political
Science in tertiary institution, and proffer an appropriate solution.
RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1.     What is the
significance of ICT in teaching Political Science in tertiary institution in
Nigeria?
2.     What are the
attitude of students and lecturers towards the use of ICT in the institution?
3.     What are the
various challenges militating against the use of ICT in teaching Political
Science in tertiary institutions in Nigeria?
RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
H0: There is no significant difference between
ICT and teaching of political science in tertiary institution.
H0: There is no significant difference between
the attitudes of students and the teaching and leanring of political science in
tertiary institution.
H0: There is no significant difference between
the challenges of facing ICT and teaching of political science in tertiary
institution.
SIGNIFICANCE
OF THE STUDY
The importance of ICT in the World can not be over emphasized. Information
systems are used in almost every business sector, government agencies,
manufacturing, accounting, marketing etc. To benefit from the uses of ICT,
teachers need to make good use of them. They need to be used as instructional
material since they make learning more meaningful and concrete. They can be
applied in various ways during teaching. However, there are some challenges
such as security, electricity, personnel etc. It is the view of this study that
these challenges can be reduced if governments at all levels increase funding
of ICT, and positive attitude towards implementation of ICT policies. Internet
centres should be cited in all schools at subsidized rate in order to promote
computer literacy of all citizens and easy access to information and computer
literacy awareness campaign should be carried out in the country just as it is
done for HIV.
ICT is so important to sustainable
development in Nigeria hence the Federal Government of Nigeria in May 24, 2001;
launched the National Policy for Information Technology (IT). Later, the
National Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Strategic Action Plan
Committee was inaugurated and mandated to draw up an e-strategy action plan and
programmes that compliment national development objectives and priorities, to
recommend potentially successful projects and programmes on a sector-by-sector
basis whose implementation would drive ICT growth in Nigeria, and to develop
bench marks, deliverables and timelines for the Strategic Action Plan and
Programmes  (FGN, 2001). The overall goal
of the policy was to make Nigeria an IT capable country in Africa and a key
player in the Information Society, using IT as the engine for sustainable
development and global competitiveness. To achieve these objectives, education
must play a major role. Here, the uses of ICT in teaching Political Science are
our main concern. Because, it is one of the disciplines that create the
necessary and sufficient knowledge for leadership in a state.
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
The study will
employ the use of descriptive statistics. Both primary data and secondary
source of data would be appropriate means of eliciting information from the
respondents in the study area through the use of the questionnaires and
interview. The primary data consists of data that are gathered from the real
source, instead of the already made data, while secondary data are data that
are gathered through the already prepared materials.
JUSTIFICATION
FOR THE STUDY
The role of
Information and communication technology in teaching and learning in tertiary
institutions is on the high increase, to the extent that developing countries
cannot be left out in this trend. Therefore, the use of ICT is rapidly becoming
one of the most important and widely discussed issues in contemporary education
policy around the world. Most experts in the field of education agreed that when
Information and Communication Technology is used in the teaching and learning
processes, it will improve and boost the ego of the schools to a large extent,
to this end, it has been indicated that computer illiteracy is now regarded as
the new illiteracy. This has actually gingered a new and strong desire to equip
schools with computer facilities and qualified personnel necessary to produce
technologically proficient and efficient students in developed and less
developed countries of this world. The need for the use of ICT in teaching
political science in tertiary institution cannot be over emphasized, as it help
the teachers and the students alike in 
they supply a concrete basis for conceptual thinking and reduce meaningless
word responses of students, they make learning more permanent since the
students see what they hear, and they offer a reality of experiences, which
stimulates self-activity on the part of the students. 
SCOPE
OF THE STUDY
The study frame work will cover the use
of  ICT in teaching Political Science in
tertiary institutions. Since it will be difficult to carried out the study in
all the tertiary institutions in Nigeria, College of Education, Ikere Ekiti was
selected to be the study area.
LIMITATIONS
OF THE STUDY
In carrying out this study, the limitation
that is imminent and obvious is the non-disclosure of the official secret
usually refers as government gazette by the institution visited. Another
limitation is the unwilling attitude of respondents particularly students on
answering or responding to questionnaires as they usually request for financial
inducement. Another limitation to the study is the indisposition of respondents
to the interview and discussion.
The above listed and aforementioned
challenges would be overcome by dialogue with relevant institutions and
agencies to get the necessary information that is need for the study. In
addition, the respondents were made  to
know that the purpose of the study was enhance further study lies not  for money making avenue or profit oriented
endure, they were therefore encourage to offer their contrition willingly
without expecting financial gains.
DEFINITION
OF TERMS
Information
and Communication Technology (ICT)
Information and
Communication Technologies has plethora of definitions because it is used
differently by various academics in the field of science and technology. Emadu
and Asan (2004) sees  ICT as the
technology that is used for gathering, storing, processing, sharing, distributing
and communicating vocal, pictorial, numerical and textual information through
computer networks to various audiences.
Tertiary
Institution
Tertiary
education
also referred to as third stage, third level, and post-secondary education, is the educational level following the
completion of a school providing a
secondary
education
.
Political
Science
Political Science is a social science
discipline concerned with the study of the state, nation, government, and
politics and policies of government. Aristotle defined it as the study of the
state.
[1] It
deals extensively with the theory and practice of
politics,
and the analysis of
political systems, political
behavior, and political culture.
Teaching
Teaching
is the act of imparting knowledge or skill”
Terms defining teaching such as imparting, knowledge, and skill are
often ambiguous
.
ORGANIZATION OF CHAPTERS
The study comprises of five chapters. Chapter
one examines background to the study, statement of the problem, objective of
the study, research hypothesis, assumption of the study, significance of the
study, research methodology, scope of the study,  limitations to the study, definition of terms
and organization of chapters. Chapter two deals with the literature review and
theoretical framework. Chapter three examines the research methodology, where
sampling method, study area, data analysis would be considered. Chapter four
looks at data presentation and interpretation. Lastly, chapter five examines
the summary, recommendation and conclusion.
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