AN ASSESSMENT OF MASS MEDIA CAMPAIGN AGAINST FEMALE GENITAL MUTILATION (FGM) IN AGENEBODE, ETSAKO EAST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA

AN ASSESSMENT OF MASS
MEDIA CAMPAIGN AGAINST FEMALE GENITAL MUTILATION (FGM) IN AGENEBODE, ETSAKO
EAST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA
ABSTRACT
          The
aim of this research is to determine why media campaigns against female genital
mutilation (FGM) in Agenebode, headquarter of Etsako East Local Government
Area, are not making positive impact on her indigenes, because the practice is
very rampant in the locality. This study, however, still relies on the premise that
media campaign is an essential tool for correcting or eliminating a social ill.
          A
questionnaire was therefore designed and administered in the locality to
determine the cause of the persistence of the F.G.M practice. The major reason
deduced, amongst many, is that Etsako people in this community are resistant to
change due to their strong believe in tradition.
          This
study therefore recommends that government authorities and NGOs should adopt a
new formula in their campaigns against FGM practice. Secondly, media campaigns
should include puritive consequences against any known FGM perpetrators in
their campaign content.
TABLE
OF CONTENTS
Cover page
Title page
Certification
Dedication
Acknowledgement
Abstract
Table of contents
CHAPTER
ONE
1.1      
Background
of the study
1.2      
Scope
of study
1.3      
Statement
of the problem
1.4      
Purpose
of the study
1.5      
Objectives
of the study
1.6      
Significance
of the study
1.7      
Research
methodology
1.8      
Limitations
of the study
1.9      
Definition
of operational terms
CHAPTER
TWO
2.1      
Evolution
of mass media
2.2      
Post-Independence
press
2.3      
Development
of Broadcasting
2.4      
Component
of the mass media
2.5      
Television
broadcast
2.6      
Radio
2.7      
Planning
mass media campaign
2.8      
Communication
campaigns
2.9      
The
issues on female genital mutilation
CHAPTER
THREE
3.1      
Population
of the study
3.2      
Sample
of the study
3.3      
Research
design
3.4      
Sampling
techniques
3.5      
Description
for research instrument
3.6      
Method
of data analysis
CHAPTER
FOUR
4.1      
Data
presentation
4.2      
Presentation
and analysis of demographic data
4.3      
Presentation
analysis of Psychographic Data
4.4      
Discussion
of findings
4.5      
Summary
of findings
CHAPTER
FIVE
5.1      
Summary
observation
5.2      
Recommendation
5.3      
Conclusion
Work cited
Appendix
  
CHAPTER
ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1      
BACKGROUND OF THE
STUDY
The mass media plays
an important role in the society by entertaining, enlightening and educating
citizenry. The media usually comes in between creation and distribution
reflecting the use of the term medium to describe the means of passing mass
information to the audience. According to Steinberg (1972) the media includes
Radio, television and
wire services,
National magazines,
motion picture
(film) and to some
extents books. (B).
Mass media campaigns
therefore remain an important strategy for health promotion, social orientation
and disease preventions since 1940s. Yet, considerable debate surround the
effectiveness of those campaigns that take the form of series of television and
radio public service announcement (PSAS) with collation of print materials such
as posters, booklets, brochures, handbills, leaflets and billboard displays.
Non governmental
organization (NGOS) are often involved as intermediaries to help disseminate
the message of the campaigns. In Nigeria, mass media campaigns have been
conducted on topics covering general health issues like immunization, birth
control, cancer control, mental health, lung disease and HIV/AIDS e.t.c.
In recent years
female circumcision here is after referred to as female Genital mutilation
(FGM) is of course one of the age long trado cultural practices that have drawn
the attention of government and non-governmental organizations in many
countries of the world. FGM recognized by many as an issue of medical, social
and legal practice has a long and complex history. At present F.G.M remains common
in many cultures in Africa and the middle East, varying in forms and severity
as a result of each group’s socio cultural norms and belief systems.
It can have severe
medical and psychological consequences for the girl child and woman on whom it
is performed. As the World Health Organization (WHO) 2002 has stated,
Changes in individual
behaviour
World seem to require
both the
Provision of accurate
information
and the reduction of
mis information. (27).
In this regard,
enormous amount of money has been spent on campaigns intended to discourage the
practice as well as educate the populace on the inherent damage the practice
has on the female child. People receive a number of influences as a result of
their exposure to the media and differ in their receptivity to these
influences.
However the essence
of this study is to among other things ascertain the level of effectiveness of
the various mass media campaigns on awareness, knowledge, attitude and the
desired behavioural change. Moreover, the study will also find out the people’s
perception towards media campaign messages in Agenebode.
1.2      
SCOPE OF STUDY
The focus of this
study is an assessment of media campaigns against Female genital mutilation
(FGM) in Agenebode, the headquarter of Etsako East local Government Area of Edo
State. The choice of Agenebode is motivated by the fact that FGM practice in
Agenebode is still very rampant inspite of several media campaigns against the
practice which are broadcast on state, and federal governments owned electronic
media as well as privately owned media stations, all signals of which are
received in Agenebode. There is also the presence of the print media in
Agenebode because there are major Nigerian dailies that cannot be bought in
various News paper stands in the local government headquarter.
This study therefore
believes that the persistence of FGM practice in Agenebode is not because there
are not enough media campaigns against it but that the Etsako people in this
community are resistant to change due to their strong belief in tradition.
There may be need for government authorities and NGOs to adopt a new formula in
their campaigns against FGM practice. First of all, media campaigns should
include puritive consequences against any known FGM perpetrators in their
campaign content. Secondly, government authorities and NGOs should sponsor a
lot of persistent outdoor activities against FGM practice in schools, market
places and in churches and mosques. These should include drama sketches and
open air propaganda. Any recently known FGM practitioner should be prosecuted
and sentenced in order to deter others from the practice.
1.3      
STATEMENT OF THE
PROBLEM
Over the century,
thousands of mass media campaigns have disseminated messages about dozens of
different health topics to the Nigerian public. Government and health
associations have sought to educate and persuade the public to adopt healthy
practice or to avoid behaviour that pose a risk to health such as female
genital mutilation (FGM) through frequent and prominent placement of paid
health messages in the mass media.
However, despite the
high resources committed to this course, there is still a prevalence of these
unhealthy practices. The effectiveness of these mass media campaigns is then
questioned. Despite the heavy flow of multimedia messages they have produced
almost no sign or evidence in knowledge gained and effective desire to change
or modify undesirable behavioural, attitudinal lifestyles. This pessimistic
outlook might be as a result of the target public high resistant to mediated
messages, apathy, attitudinal defensiveness and cognitive ineptness.
This study however,
will seek to fill this knowledge gap specifically in Agenebode, Etsako East
Local government area of Edo State.
1.4      
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of the
study, is to investigate the effectiveness of mass media campaign interventions
in influencing public behaviour. The essence however, is to establish direct
links between mass media campaign interventions and subsequent public
awareness, knowledge, attitude and behavioural change against FGM in Agenebode,
Etsako East local Government Area of Edo State.
1.5      
OBJECTIVES OF THE
STUDY
Based on the general
background and purpose, the research focuses on the following specific
objectives
i.       To find out the
effectiveness of mass media campaign in generating awareness and knowledge on
the harmful effects of FGM
ii.      To find out the
degree to which the various campaigns have led to change in behaviour and
attitude.
iii.     To find out which mass media (Electronic or
Print) has the greatest influence on the campaign influence on the campaign
against FGM in Agenebode, Etsako East Local Government Area of Edo State.
iv.     To ascertain the
perception of the people towards mass media campaign messages in Agenebode.
1.6      
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE
STUDY
No doubt, mass media
campaign plays an influential role in many societies. Therefore understanding
and ascertaining their level of effectiveness in generating awareness,
knowledge and sensitization leading to desired behavioural change is
imperative. Considering the huge amount spent on mass media campaigns
interventions, the findings of this study will help government and
non-government organization (NGOs) set priorities, re-strategize and deploy
resources wisely to the specific mass media or mediums that will be effective
in achieving their goals.
Moreso, the findings
will also be beneficial to advertising agencies and media firms in policy and
strategies formulation. The research hopes to contribute immensely to existing
pool of knowledge on mass media campaigns strategies and effectiveness in
Nigeria. Finally, it will serve as a useful reference to future researchers.
1.7      
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
The target population
of this study will consist of students in secondary and tertiary institutions,
market men and women who have lock up shops in Agenebode local market and local
government council employees. The sample of the study shall consist of 40 men
and women who have lock up shops, 20 members of staff of Etsako East local
Government council, 40 students in secondary and tertiary institutions will
constitute the third sample group. The sample population will therefore amount
to 100.
A survey method of
gathering data will be used in the study. A sample questionnaire will be drawn
and administered. The data gathered will be analysed using simple percentage
and descriptive method.
1.8    LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
          Library
resources and other information on this topic were relatively old and obsolete.
Time and financial constraints also greatly slowed down the process of
gathering information. Most on-line sources of information required financial
subscriptions. Time was insufficient due to pressure from other academic
activities.
          The
above limitations not withstanding, this researcher was not deterred by these
challenges but worked tirelessly to meet her objectives in order to produce a
reliable study.
1.9    DEFINITION OF OPERATIONAL TERMS
          Mass
media is a channel of communication, for example, television, radio through
which messages flow and are produced by a few for consumption by many people.
Units of communication, television, radio station, newspapers and magazines
Ogbiten B.O (2008).
CAMPAIGN
          Any
deliberate effort planned and directed towards identified audience purposely to
sensitize and influence (shape or reshape) their attitude and behaviour
concerning a thing (Ogbiten, 2008).
MASS
MEDIA CAMPAIGN
          In
this research work mass media campaign refers to a deliberate, designed and
planned means and series of information and communication activities through
the media to a large number of audiences with a set purpose of influencing
their ideas, behaviour and knowledge, e.t.c.
FEMALE
GENITAL MUTILATION
          The
use of this word in this study refers to cutting the clitoris of the female
organ by harming or depriving it of its natural functions to a woman,
especially by cutting or tearing off part of it (Oxford Dictionary) in this
case of this study this will mean the female genital organ (virgina)
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