AN ASSESSMENT OF CHLORIDE IONS IN WELL WATER SITUATED AROUND DUMPSITES IN IKERE-EKITI, EKITI STATE.

AN ASSESSMENT OF CHLORIDE IONS IN WELL WATER SITUATED AROUND DUMPSITES IN  IKERE-EKITI, EKITI STATE.
 
TABLE
OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE                                                                  i
APPROVAL PAGE                                                        ii
CERTIFICATION                                                                    iii
DEDICATION                                                                iv
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS…                                            v
TABLE OF CONTENTS…                                               vi
ABSTRACT                                                               viii
CHAPTER
ONE
Background of the Study                                                         1
Introduction                                                                      1
CHAPTER
TWO
Review of Related Literature…                                                    7
Leachate Effect                                                      ..        10
Cancer Effect                                                               12
Health and Nuisance Problem…                                            12
CHAPTER
THREE
Sampling                                                                 17
Population of the Study…                                                 17
Samples Collection…                                                     18
Samples Preservation…                                                  18
Experimental…                                                           18
Laboratory Procedure…                                                           19
Precautions…                                                              20
CHAPTER
FOUR
Presentation of Result and Analysis of
Data …                            21
CHAPTER
FIVE
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation…                            27
Summary                                                                 27
Conclusion                                                              28
Recommendation…                                                        29
References…                                                               30
 
ABSTRACT
An assessment of the concentration of
chloride ion in selected well water located around dumpsites in Ikere town of  Ekiti State was carried out.   Sixteen  (16) well water samples were collected from
selected wells situated around dumpsites in different cardinal areas of  Ikere town vis a vis: Ado Road, Oke-Osun road,
Moshood road and College Road. Morh’s method which is an accurate reliable and
widely used analytical method was used to determine the concentration of
chloride ion in the selected well water samples. The result of the analysis
revealed that all the levels of chloride ion obtained in the four cardinal
areas of Ikere town are still within the normal permissible level of 250mg/L
recommended by USEPA for normal level of chloride ion in water. The result also
revealed that the well water  in these
areas are good for drinking.
 CHAPTER
ONE
BACKGROUND
OF STUDY
INTRODUCTION
          Drinking
water quality is a relative term that relates the composition with effects of
natural processes and human activities George Wattson (2002). Deterioration of
drinking water quality arises from introduction of chemical compounds into the
water supply system through leaks and across collection.
          Pollution
is a major problem in Nigeria which had caused severe effect on human health
improper management of wastes especially treatment and disposal of solid and
liquid wastes are the major contributors to urban area pollution. The combined
results of these problems lead to drinking water contamination which is
detrimental to human health.
          Over
two billion people of the world’s polluted population have suffered diseases
like cholera, rivers blindness etc related to drinking polluted waters diseases
cases occur in tropical areas.  MC Peters
(2001). The relationship between water quality and health problems are
complicated and include both negative and positive effects Tebbute (2004). More
than 250 million new cases of water borne diseases cases occur in tropical
areas. The Bonn international conference on freshwater in (2001) revealed that
half of the people in Africa continent suffered water related diseases.
          Rainfall
is one of the factors affecting water quality as it can wash dissolved
nutrients into the water shed and increase the organic carbon level and can
also depress alkalinity levels and stimulate corrosion White (2000). However,
during raining season, the watching of substances into the rivers  suggest contamination. High concentrations
can be damaging to metal pipes and structures as well as to agricultural crops
Adam (2001).
          Drinking
water sources are often contaminated with a variety of pathogenic organism,
that include viruses, bacteria and protozoa that could be responsible for
outbreaks of water borne diseases. The primary purpose of chlorinating drinking
water is disinfection. The introduction of drinking water treatment early in 20th
century including disinfection with chlorine reduced the rates of illness and
death from waterborne pathogens curter and miller (2005).
          Almost
all natural waters contain chloride ions. This concentration may vary according
to what mineral it presents. In small amounts they are not significant. In
large concentration they present problems. Usually chloride concentrations are
low. Low to moderate concentration adds palatability to water. Excessive
concentrations can make water unpleasant to drink USEPA (2002).
          The
USEPA (2002) recommends a maximum concentration 250mg/L for chloride ion in
water. This upper limit has been set for the chloride ions, though at this
limit few people will notice the taste. Higher concentration may indicate
possible health effects and pollution.
          An
increase of chloride ion in water would suggest contamination. High
concentration can be damaging to metal pipes and structures as well as to
agriculture. Hughes (2000). Water may carry moderate amount of dirty organic
debris and suspended materials as rivers move close to inhabited areas, water
quality can deteriorate further, although rivers have the tendency of natural
self-purification. The quality, of surface water (Rivers and Streams) is
dynamic and can change within the catchments area. Small streams may carry
clear water for most part of the year (America water works association 2003)
during the rainy season.
          Chemical
parameters of drinking water quality give an indication of water acceptability
of human consumption which can be domestic use, agricultural use and industrial
use Chatwell et al (2006). The chemical parameters must be taken into
consideration in the assessment of water quality such as source protection,
treatment efficiency and reliability and protection of the distribution
networks WHO (2002). In most natural waters, the PH is controlled by the carbon
dioxide carbonate bicarbonate equilibrium system. An increase in carbon dioxide
concentration will lower the PH whereas a decrease will cause it to rise. The
PH values of water may also be affected by domestic sewage (Generally neutral
or slightly alkaline).
          Industrial
wastes may be strongly acidic or alkaline depending on the type of industry.
This industrial waste contribute to the increase in chloride ion of the water.
Rain can result in the proportionally high levels of dissolved minerals or
nutrients in a particular water source. A quality standard sets the
acceptability levels of concentration for pollutants in water to be used for
various purpose e.g. drinking, irrigation, aqua culture etc.
          In
Nigeria, the leakage in the transmission or distribution system contributes to
the infiltration of sediments and contamination into piped water. This problem
becomes severe when sewage and piped water systems treatment can also be a
source of contamination of drinking water (Lohani 2001).
          Distance
travelled, age of pipes and extent of internal deposition in main and conduct
are the key factors contributing towards drinking water contamination. The
ground water quality on the other hand is relatively uniform throughout an
aquifer changes in quality occur slowly due to the fact that it is not exposed
to the air and is not as subject to direct pollution and contamination results
either from improper well construction or poor waste disposal facilities
America water works Association (2003).
          Chloride
ion is one of the major ions in water and Sewage. The salty taste it produces
is variable and depends on what other components the water has when water
contains 250mg/L of chloride and sodium ions are present in water it may have a
detectable salty taste. On the other hand water may not taste salty if calcium
and magnesium ions are present in it and chlorine ions may reach as much as
1000mmg/L Adam (2001). Any increase of Chloride ion in water would cause severe
diseases to human health which is dangerous (Carwight and Sherma 2005).
          Municipal
and industrial waste water discharges was increase, the chloride ions values of
rivers as well Bhattacharya (2004).
          Chloride
ion is the traditional measure of the capacity of water to react with soap.
Chloride ion makes up about 1.9% of the mass of sea water. Most chloride salts
are highly soluble in water that is why they are rich in dry climate or deep underground.
Chloride ion is abundant in nature and necessary to most forms of  life including human. Chloride (Cl2)
does not exist naturally but can be produce through electrolysis of Nacl
dissolved in water or by the hydrogen chloride oxidation process White (2000).
          The
uses of chloride in the treatment of drinking water play a major role in
reducing or even eliminating water borne diseases Bull (2000). Chloride can be
also added to water algal, fungal and bacterial growth  to control the slime growth, restore well
capacity, control taste and odours and disinfect water white (2001).
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