AN APPRAISAL OF PRACTICAL WORK IN TEACHING GEOGRAPHY IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN IKERE – EKITI

AN APPRAISAL OF PRACTICAL WORK IN TEACHING GEOGRAPHY IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN IKERE – EKITI 

TABLE OF CONTENT
Title page
Certification
Dedication
Acknowledgement
Abstract
Table of Content
List of Tables
CHAPTER ONE:         INTRODUCTION
Background to the study
Statement of Problem
Research Questions
Need for the study
Significance of the study
Delimitation of the study
Limitation of the study
Definition of Terms



CHAPTER TWO:        REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Introduction
Geography and Educational Objectives
Practical work in Geography
Aspects of Practical work in
Geography
Methods of Teaching Geography
CHAPTER THREE:    RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Introduction
Research Design
Population of the study
The Sample Selection
Instrumentation and Validation
Data Collection
Procedure
Data Analysis
CHAPTER FOUR:       RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Introduction
Results and Discussion
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATIONS,
IMPLICATION AND CONCLUSION
Summary of Finding
Recommendations
Implication of the study
Suggestion for further study
Conclusion
REFERENCES
APPENDIX



LIST OF TABLES
1.                
Qualification
of Teachers
2.                
T
– test of Practical Geography on sex
3.                
T
– test of Practical Geography on Single sex and mixed sex schools.
4.                
Percentage
distribution of teacher’s attitude responses to practical work in Geography.
5.                
Percentage
distribution of Teacher’s involvement of students in practical activities in
geography.



CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1           
BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
In recent decades geography has been
undergoing major changes in its concepts, methodology and techniques.  The “new” geography, can be describe as a
recent development and changes as a revolution.
For instance, with regard to the
concept of geography and the unit of study, it is becoming widely accepted that
a geographer can today study a unit area as small as a single farm, a river or
stream, a classroom or even a teachers table. 
The organization of space and the processes operating within a classroom,
such as the relationship of space and distance between the students through
their seating arrangements or between the class and the teacher.
To be a good geographer, one has to
be very sound in the practical aspects of geography.  Practical work is an essential method used to
realize the objectives of geography teaching, some of the objectives includes:
i.                  
Developing
the students ability to understand and explain natural phenomenon and marvels
of nature.
ii.                
To
develop in students, the ability to think critically and to have respect for
accuracy as well as orderly and objective method of investigation.
The deductive approach of starting
from a problem for study and a set of reasoned hypotheses to be tested and
accepted, rejected or modified for further testing is favoured.  Scientific methodology or approaches, which
can be tried and reproduced elsewhere, with similar or stated varying
conditions and premises now mark the science of geography.
Geographical techniques are therefore
improved and new tools of geographical investigation and testing are being
developed in order to meet the demands of new trends in the subjects.  Without a knowledge of practical work in
geography all the skills and techniques that are required in the new geography
cannot be acquired.
Local geography, field work and map
work as suggested by Majasan have come to form core areas in practical work in
geography.  In local geography, students
are made to study their home environment by assembling and analyzing its
physical and human resources with a view of assessing its potentials and
problems in development.
Map work is another major theme
forming a subsection of practical in geography, just as field work is also a
major theme and similarly a subsection of practical work.  According to Amosun (1994), the need for
cartographers is being taken care of by practical work in map work.  Map work in geography can be subdivided into
map making and aerial photography.
1.2           
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
This study sought to appraise the
practical work in geography in terms of availability of materials and
instruments and how frequent the teachers get the students involved in
practical work or activities in geography. 
Teachers do not pay attention to this area of geography and students see
practical aspects to be boring and tough. 
Most schools do not have enough material to carry out this aspect.
1.3           
STUDY OBJECTIVES
To appraise and to know the
importance of practical work in Geography.
1.4           
RESEARCH QUESTIONS
In order to achieve the purpose of
the study, the following research questions are posed:
i.                  
Is
there any significant difference between the male and female teacher’s
appraised of practical work in geography?
ii.                
Is
there any significant differences between the teacher’s appraised of practical
work in geography in mixed schools (co-educational schools) and single sexed
schools?
1.5           
NEED FOR THE STUDY
The researcher carried out this
study, so as to appraise the place of practical work in geography in some
secondary schools in Ikere – Ekiti, and also to suggest possible corrections
and solutions in the areas where needed.
1.6           
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The researcher carried out this study
so that finding of this study will possibly be useful to teachers.  It might pump them into action by reassessing
their current level of engaging their students in practical activities that
could help students become professionals and contribute to the society’s well
being and developing, help geographical bodies to organize seminars, workshops,
conferences and book publishing on the area of weakness.  Also to provide useful information upon which
future research work in the area of students activities as required in
practical work in geography can be based. (Amosun 1994).
1.7           
DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY
Due to distance and financial
problem, this type of study cannot be successfully made on a nation wide basis
by the researcher.  Because of these
constraints, the study has been restricted mainly to the secondary schools in
Ikere – Ekiti.
1.8           
LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
There are certain problems that would
confronted the researcher and made her finding of limited applicability in a
study of this nature.
The limited period at the disposal of
the researcher made it difficult for her to extend her study to other parts of
the country.
Any conclusion based on these
findings should therefore be considered with caution when applying the findings
to all secondary schools in Nigeria.
The research instrument, that is the
questionnaire has its own limitations. 
Though, it was validated, the respondents’ responses differ, not only in
terms of how frequently they are engaged or what materials is available, but
also in their differences in moods in interpreting the questions.
1.9           
DEFINITION OF TERMS
In a study like this, there is need
to define some of the concepts or variables that are used in the course of this
study.  This is to enable anyone reading
this essay to understand the various concepts or variables with little or no
help.
APPRAISAL: To estimate the quality or
value of something.
FIELD WORK: This involves actual
geographical study or work carried out on the field.
GEOGRAPHY LABORATORY: This is the
room where most of the practical work in geography takes place and materials
are kept.
LOCAL Geography: This is the
geographical study of certain aspects of major physical and cultural features
of child’s home environment.
MAP: This is the representation of physical
and human features observable on the earth’s surface on a piece of paper.
MAP WORK: This is the art and science
of interpretation and analysis of features on the map.
PRACTIAL WORK: This is concerned with
the actual practice or action.  It also
has to do with real life experiences.


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