activities of the Boko Haram and its socio-economic implication on Nigeria’s development. Using boko haram’s terrorism in Nigeria as a case study.

CHAPTER
ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1           
Background
of the Study
Nigeria
as a nation state is under several internal socio- economic and security
threat. As a more general level, the threat has social, economic, political and
environmental dimensions has greatly affected the nation’s stability, and can
be traced t the ethnic militia armies, ethnic and religious conflicts, poverty,
terrorism, armed robbery, corruption, economic sabotage and environmental
degradation (Ilufoye, 2009).
Boko
haram’s insurgence becomes the major problem facing Nigerians in the recent
time. These groups have perpetrated several bombing that killed millions of
people that are innocent citizens of this country (Nigeria) and also caused the
destruction of both private and public properties worth of billions of naira.
This devices from their bid to make people in the north east geo-political zone
of Nigeria to embrace their view on Islamic Nigeria code and western education.
The
predominant threat and security challenges in the area are emendating from
un-abating attacks on Nigeria citizens, individuals, public and governmental
installations, kidnapping and destruction of properties. All these effect of
boko haram’s activities are serious crimes against the Nigeria state, which has
threatened its national security and socio-economic activities. This has posed
a great challenge to the ground strategy for national security of which the primary
aim is “ to strengthen the federal republic of Nigeria to advance her interest
and objectives ,to contain instability, control crime, quality of life of every
citizens, improve the welfare and eliminate corruption” (Damba –zau 2007: 51).
Boko
haram activities has destabilized socio-economic activities. Increased crime
and destruction of both life and property of Nigerian citizens. This can be
attested to by the mass movement of people living in the northern parts of the
country most especially Maiduguri, which is the capital of Borno state. This
situation has made it impossible for the citizens in that part “northern” of
Nigeria to carry on their legitimate businesses. It is also scaring foreign
investors out of the country. Students have been forced to flee their schools.
The gravity of the crisis has made some government to vow never to allow
Nigerian students from their state to go to the northern part fo Nigeria for
anything. Boko haram activities also affected the posting of students of
southern and eastern extraction on national youth service corps (N.Y.S.C) to
the north, to the extent that parents are strongly insiting the posting of
their children as copper to the north.
Boko
haram itself, is a fatal blow to the noble objective of the scheme as a unifying
strategy, the unity of Nigeria is seriously threatened by Boko haram
fundamentalist set and therefore, considered to be a major potential terrorist
threat affecting Nigeria mostly on the part of socio-economic activities of the
country.
1.2           
Statement
of the Problem
Boko
haram activities was described by our intelligence agents in November 2011 “as
a local salafist group attacking Christians and local police stations with
matchet and poison tipped arrows in Nigeria’s north eastern Bornu state”.
According to him:
Boko haram is a way of thinking, it
is politically driven, they are loosely organized grass root insurrection
against not only the Abuja government but the traditional Muslim establishment
as well. (Campbell 2011).
After
nearly a decade of violence, Nigeria government still does not have an
effective strategy for dismantling the group. The terrorist organization preys
on the disillusioned Muslims of the north who are fed up with corruption and
have few economic opportunities. Nigeria is a heterogeneous country divided by
two religious beliefs aside traditional religion. The northern half of the
country is almost completely Muslim (50 percent of the total Nigerians
population) and the southern half is mostly dominated by Christians (40 percent
of the total Nigerian population). Originating in the Muslim dominated northern
region of the country, the movement other rejected everything deemed western.
The activities of this groups “Boko Haram” grew its ranks by taking the
advantages of the wide spread anger in the north over the country’s gap. In the
north, 72 percent of the population live below the poverty line, compared to
only 22 percent in the southern part (Christopher Bavtolta, 2011).
The
political goal of boko haram seef is to create an Islamic nation in the twelve
northern state of Nigeria, eventually, spreading to the rest of the country.
From its inception Boko Haram viewed Nigeria as a state or a country running by
unbelievers and made the government its main target, ever when the country had a
Muslim president.     
Therefore,
this research work seems to find the following:
1.    
Is poverty inducing the boko haram
insurgency in Nigeria?
2.    
Does the boko haram insurgence have any
socio-economic implication on Nigerians development?
3.    
Is dialogue a desideration to the boko
haram menace in Nigeria?
1.3           
Objectives
of the Study
The
broad objectives of the study are to examine the activities of the Boko Haram
and its socio-economic implication on Nigeria’s development. Using boko haram’s
terrorism in Nigeria as a case study. To achieve this, specifically, this
research work is designed to examine the following:
1.    
To determine if property is inducing the
Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria.
2.    
To assess the socio- economic
implication of boko haram insurgence on nation (Nigeria).
3.    
 To determine if dialogue is a desideration to
the boko haram menace in Nigeria.
1.5           
Hypothesis
For
the purpose of this study, this hypotheses were formulated:
HI:
Poverty and unemployment seem to be the driving force of boko haram insurgence.
HO:
Boko haram insurgence has led to lose of revenue and seeming disunity in
Nigeria.
1.6           
Significance
of the Study
All
individuals live in a world prone to crisis. No nation is free from crisis.
Violence is endemic in human relations. The global threat of terrorism respect
no boundaries or borders. Nigeria is not free from these threats, emanating
from Boko Haram activities, therefore he debating questions are:
1.    
What is the nature of the threat?
2.    
Have the security agencies handled the
situation well?
3.    
What has gone wrong with strategy
employed?
4.    
How should government respond to these
recent terrorist bombing?
5.    
Can militaristic approach without move
work, work?
6.    
Are there lessons to be learned in the
way other countries handle such threats?
This
research work will attempt to answer these questions, and build up relevant
literatures on Islamic fundamental, and contributes to the academic,
professionals and security at large as it enlightens, develops and inform
citizens and government of the reoccurring activities of domestic terrorists
and making of possible for policy makers to strategize measure to handle the
conflict in Nigeria.
Beyond
serving as an addition to already existing literature, it will serve as a
practical guide for those in the field of criminal investigation departments,
anti-terrorism or counter insurgence.
This
study is thereby motivated by strong desire to contribute to the ranging
dissolution its socio-economic implications on Nigeria’s development. It is
therefore, hoped that this study will be relevant and of benefits to the
students and scholars of Economics, political science, history, intelligent and
security studies and the society at large.
1.7           
Scope
and Limitations of the Study
                   The scope of this research
work is quite broad that it encompasses the investigation “the effect of Boko
Haram’s insurgence on the socio-economic development of Nigeria”.
                   The limitation of this study,
various factors contributed in affecting researchers comprehensiveness and
totality in carrying out the study. Among these factors are scarcity of
relevant materials on the issue due to its continuous evolving nature and
virginity experienced its apex in the course of the research interval.
                   Despite the financial
problem, hindrance and shortcomings, the research work will defiantly come to
accomplishment
1.8           
Definition
of Terms
Insurgence:
This is defined as a political battle waged among a cooperative or acquiescence
populace in order for a group of outsiders to take over (or at less undermine)
the government of a nation.
Crime:
On the definition of crime, the united nation research institution observed
that;
Crime in the sense of branch of a legal
prohibition, is a universal concepts, out what actually constitutes a crime and
how seriously it should be regarded, varies enormously from one society to
another perception of crime are not determined by any objective indicator of
the degree of injury or damage, but by culture values and power relations (UN
Research Institute for Social Development, 1995).
          In a strict legal definition, however,
a crime is a violation of the criminal law, which is subsequently followed by
legal punishment (Dambazau, 2007).
Violence:
Violence is defined by World Health Organization (W.H.O) as the international
use of physical force of power, threatened or actual against oneself, another
person, or against a group or community, that either results in or has a high
likelihood of resulting in injuries, death, psychological harm, mal development
or deprivation (Wikipedia, WHO).
Sect:
Sect can be seen as a body of person distinguished by peculiarities of faith
and practice form other bodies adhering to the same general system. Specially,
the adherents collectively or older form of faith or believe (Britanic World
Language Dictionary).
Peace:
Peace is generally defined as the absence of war, conflict, anxiety, suffering,
violence and absolute peaceful co-existence. However, peace connotes move than
a more absence of war hostilities because an absence of conflict is inevitable.
Therefore, peace could be defined as a political conditions that justice and
social stability through formal or informal institutions, practices and norms
(Howard, 1987).
Security:
Security can be defined to mean “the total sum of actions measures, including
legislative and operational procedures, adopted to ensure peace, stability and
the several wellbeing of a nation and its citizens (Shinikaiye, 2004:2).
Terrorism:
Terrorism is perhaps the most controversial Problematic concept to define in
the world today. This is made more problematic blurred distinction between
legitimate act of resistance and criminal act of terrorism. Despite these
difficulties, however, terrorism could conceptualized as the politically
motivated gets of violation perpetrated against civilian targets with the aim
of inflicting mass causalities, instilling fear and a sense of insecurity and
affecting a change in the policies and action of the victims (Nolan, 1998).
National
Security:
National security is best described as a capacity
to control those domestic and foreign conditions that the public opinions of a
given community believes necessary to enjoy its own self-determination or
autonomy, prosperity and wellbeing (Maier 2000:5).
Islamic
Fundamentalism:
Islamic fundamentalism is a term used
to describe religious ideologies seen as advocating a return to the
fundamentals of Islam. The Quran and the summah, it is deemed problematic by
those who suggest that Islamic belief requires all Muslims to be
fundamentalists (Bernands, 1993). Islamic fundamentalists oppose the
infilteration of secular and westernizing influences and seek to institute
Islamic law including in Muslim and strict code of behavior.
Domestic Terrorism:
Domestic terrorism is the commission of terrorist attacks in a state by forces
inside or originating from the state, as opposed to terrorist attack by forces
external to the state. In other words, domestic terrorism is a terrorist act
practice in one’s own country against her own people (Online Dictionary).

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