A SURVEY OF THE USE OF IMPROVED MATERIALS FOR TEACHING MODERN SCIENCE CONCEPT

A SURVEY OF THE USE OF IMPROVED MATERIALS FOR TEACHING MODERN SCIENCE CONCEPT 
CHAPTER ONE
1.0                 
INTRODUCTION
Science is coined from
greek and latin word scientics “means to know” or knowledge”.
This concept as however
being described in so many ways by various authors that owe is left no clear
cut defining the term for instant.
To a layman “science is anything that
made life more comfortable for him or her organized body of knowledge in the
form of theory, concept law, fact etc.
Science is knowledge
ascertained by observation and experiment critically tested, systematized and
brought under general principle.
It is a product which is
knowledge organized along various scientific facts, concepts, theories and
laws.
Bajah (2007) defined
science as “an attempt by human being to organize their experiences about
nature into meaningful system of explanation”.
Ogunniyi (2012) also
defined science in his own view as “an interconnected series of concept and
conceptual schemes that have developed as a result of experimentation and
observation, it may also defined as an area of learning that deal with all of
the physicochemical aspect of life.
Science is a concept that
need to be practice, it a subject that deals with learning by doing. Mohammed
(2015) as a science educator, learning experience should be kept active and
this should be done through practical work. Learner of science are expected to
work with equipment materials, reagent and specimen which enough can encourage
the students to involve in many activities in science. These materials otherwise
known as apparatus which the student used for the purpose of study and data
collection.
Over the year, classrooms
in our teacher education system have been characterized by the “chalktalk”
syndrome where teachers engage in long narratias and write lengthing notes owe
thw chalkboard.
According to Ukege
(2012) the mode of content delivery is sometimes more in theory than
practice as dictation, coping of notes and sale of hand – outs are often
observed as the “operational strategies” a problem aborserved by poor
equipment/facilities.
This has given rise to
boring lessons delivered in colourless and drab presentations. Today in most of
our teacher training colleges and colleges of education, students merely sit
through lectures as a matter of study. Some of them exhibit bureden in various
ways while others simply stay away from classes.
Decrying this intortunate
situation, Tella O,ctal (2000) lawent for quite a number of years, Nigerian
students have been expoted to the traditional techniques of teaching which are
teachers centred. Apart from the fact that the method limits the scope of the
knowledge of students it also encourages role learning and it is word of
developing initatives in pupils or students commenting on this situation Essier
(2015) posits that the teachers education curriculum is either two restrictive
or not purposeful enough to awaken the inner resources of our youths. According
to him, the curriculum is “little more than a mechanical device for mass
production” writing further, he states emphatically that training should be
anchored on wholesome rhythms such as stage drama and poetry rather than on
mutters that affect only the memory and not the mind (emphasis morely).
In the same vain Ukeje 2016) a gives that any teaching which leads to rote learning is as
unacceptable as indoctrination. According to him if education in the door that
leads to modernization, it is the teacher that holds the key that unlocks that
door”. Such a teacher must therefore poises masterly of the skills he intends
to impart. The training of the teacher is consequently very important because
no man can give what he does not have. Teacher training must therefore be
practical oriented rather than (engaging ni) long story telling sessions
enchored on rote learning.
A major purpose ofteacher
education according to the national policy on education (1993) is to provide
teachers with the intellectual and professional background adequate for their
assignment and to make them adaptable to any charging situation not only in the
life of their country but in the wider world.
However, for good
learning of science to take place certain aids has to be introduced, which
would impact knowledge to the learners of science. In other works science are
through with the use of aids which can be improvised materials transmit
information as the real materials does, the effect doing this to wipe away the
abstract belief of learning in science.
According to Aegean, Oke Bukola, and Fetunwase (1981) improvisation is
“art of substitution for the real thing”.
According to Alonge
(2003) views improvisation he said it is not just the production of important
substitution for the “real thing” rather it is activity in promoting curiosity,
creativity, alertness, endurances and perseverance all of which are indispensable
to science and scientists, acquisition, retention in science education
industries. It encourages the act of bringing together of learners in solving
identifying and classifying science problems. Integrated science has been
considered as one of the vital subject in the school syllabus be it primary or
secondary institution its importants can be seen from its daily occurrence in
the general time table which out numbers other subject just like English and
Mathematics.
As a discipline of study,
the teaching and learning of integrated science is a challenging and existing
venture which merits special attention and skills on the part of both the
teacher and the learner.
1.1                 
STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS
Integrated science is
considered on important subject in the study of science.
This research work seeks
to provide situation to the following problem.
1)         
Does
the use of improvisation wipe away the abstract beliefs of the student?.
2)    Does the use of improvised materials
contributes to good learning and teaching of science?
3)    Is the use of improvised materials
advantageous to the learners?
4)         
Does
the use of improvised materials that are not costly to be embarked upon?
5)         
 Do the teacher make use of improvised
materials in their teaching always?
1.2                 
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The main focus of this research is
therefore to find out a survey on the effective use of improvised materials in
our secondary schools. And how they go along in helping the teacher to teach
and explain some modern scientific concept.
1.3                 
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
Due to the fact that the research
have to be carried out in many school in Akure South Local Government Area of
Ondo State and there is financial problem as time shortage the research work is
limited to selects teacher of integrated science in Akure South Local Government.
The research intend to limit it scope
of the following secondary schools.
i.                  
Alakunre Comprehensive
High School
, Akure
ii.                
Ijo Mimo
Oluwa High
School
, Akure
iii.             
Saint
Micheal Catholic High School, Akure
iv.             
Secret
of Success Academy, Akure
v.                
Seat
of Wisdom Academy, Akure  
1.4                 
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study will be of immense
importance to the teachers and student, it will enable the teacher to know the
relievance of integrated science as a subject to every day life.
Hence this study should be of
interest not only to the educationalist but also to the science teacher and
students who would like to use it for improving the lot of student of science.
The significance of this study to the
government and ministry of education like in the area of amenities which are
needed in all secondary schools that will promote the teaching and learning of
integrated science in secondary school.
1.5                 
LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The study will be limited to only
secondary schools in Akure South Local Government Education District because of
limited time at work, financial constraints.
1.6                 
RESEARCH QUESTIONS
This research study will provide
answers to the following questions.
1)               
Are
there enough instructional materials in Nigeria schools?
2)               
What
are the factors militating against good performance of science teachers in our
schools?
3)               
Are
those teaching science really qualified for the job?
4)               
Are
there any differences between male and female teachers in their performances in
science?
5)               
What
motivational techniques are used to stimulate teacher interest in science.
1.7                 
DEFINITION OF TERMS
1)    Survey: This
is a situation whereby we measure and map out the size, shape, position, and
elevation e.t.c of an area of the earth’s surface.
2)    Improvised materials: Is anything that make teaching and learning more effective, and anything
that will rouse and motivate the interest of the learners
3)    Teaching: Teaching
is an act of bringing about desirable changes in human learning and behaviours
4)    Science:
Science is the every human activities or experience that we organized in a
systematic way in order to understand his environment. Science also concerned
finding out the truth about the nature.
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 CHAPTER TWO
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