A SURVEY OF ATTITUDE OF FEMALE SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS TOWARD SPORTS
Background of the study
The attitude of female secondary school students towards participating in sports is an important topic of study. Despite efforts to increase female involvement in sports, more work is needed to boost female participation globally, including in secondary schools. Engaging in sports and physical activities leads to better health, confidence, and well-being, and participation is driven by a variety of intrinsic and extrinsic motivations. The rise of women in sports is a recent phenomenon, only becoming prevalent in the 20th century. Understanding the attitudes of female secondary school students towards sports participation is crucial in promoting female involvement and creating a more inclusive sports culture.
The field of sports encompasses all games from casual play to organized club athletics. Physical education and sports can contribute to a well-rounded education by promoting physical health, along with intellectual development. In recent years, there has been increased interest in promoting female participation in sports. Despite efforts, more work is needed to increase female involvement in the world of sports. Female participation in sports remains a contentious issue globally, including in Nigeria. Motivations for participation vary, including financial, satisfaction, social, psychological, and fulfillment. Those who participate in sports, recreation, and physical activities are generally healthier, more confident, and feel better. The rise of women in sports is a 20th century development, as women were not allowed to participate or even watch in ancient times. The descriptive survey method can be used to gather opinions from a representative sample of the target population and infer perceptions of the entire population.
The topic of female participation in sports has become an area of research in recent years, with efforts being made to increase female involvement. Despite these efforts, more work is needed to boost female participation in sports globally, including in Nigeria. Participation in sports today is driven by a variety of motivations, including financial gain, satisfaction, social and psychological fulfillment, which differs from historical reasons for participating solely for survival. Engaging in sports and physical activities leads to better health, confidence, and well-being. The rise of women in sports is a recent phenomenon, only becoming prevalent in the 20th century. Women were not allowed to participate or even attend the first Olympics in ancient Greece. The descriptive survey method can be used to gather opinions from a representative sample of the target population to understand the overall perception.
When considering sport not only as a way of developing an individual’s physical and motor skills but also as a game, as recreation and as a free-time activity, it is also beneficial for social relationships. Sport is effective for adaptability to the environment especially for university students starting a new life. Thanks to sport, it is possible to enter different environments and form new friendships. This will be possible only with a positive attitude towards sport.
In the rapidly developing age of technology, societies, in order to maintain their existence in a healthy environment and to preserve community peace and welfare, benefit from sporting activities. It is known that taking part in activities like these is important for individuals’ healthy development, for protecting them from harmful habits in the environmental conditions and for increasing the quality of their lives (Senturk, 2012; Sahin, 2015; Guner, 2015). To achieve this, first of all guidance is needed towards participation in activities like these. This is only possible by developing a positive attitude towards sport in individuals. As is known, attitudes have a powerful effect on an individual’s behaviors (Tavsancil; 2014). The factor that determines whether an individual’s behavioural responses are positive or negative is that individual’s attitudes (Ho, 2008; Morgan, 2010).
Attitude has been the subject of many research studies from several viewpoints, such as how it forms, how it changes, and how it affects the individual and society (Tekkursun, Demir, Ilhan and Arslan, 2017). In some of the studies made, attitude is evaluated as a multifaceted concept, especially in education (Sullivan, 2005; Ozmentes, 2006). The concept of attitude has been defined by many researchers. According to Franzoi (2003), attitude is “a positive or negative evaluation of an object”. Cuceloglu (2005), however, defines attitude as “the state of an individual’s belief and emotions formed towards people, subjects or events”. According to Hogg and Vaughan (2006), attitude is a structure that directs our behaviours, although it is not directly observable.
Attitudes may show a number of changes during the course of our lives. While an individual’s immediate surroundings are effective in forming his or her attitudes, especially in the first years of life, these attitudes may undergo a series of changes according to the individual’s level of knowledge, socialisation processes and life experiences (Inceoglu, 2010). It is known that attitudes are formed especially during adolescence (12-21 years) and that they take their final form and become permanent during adulthood (21-30 years) (Kagıtcıbası, 2005). It is also known that during individuals’ university period, which generally coincides with their period of adolescence, their attitudes may undergo a number of changes dependent on their experiences (Ozyurek, 2010). Therefore, the importance of organising university experiences in the direction of gaining positive attitudes in students should not be ignored by system executives.
The role of educational organizations in forming and developing attitudes towards sport is great (Balyan, Balyan and Kiremitci, 2012). With the aim of increasing university students’ participation in sport, giving individuals enough opportunities and facilities, and directing and motivating them towards sport will have a positive effect on their attitudes towards sport. Offering sporting services, particularly in branches that were unavailable to students prior to university education, is very important regarding both development of positive attitudes and social development. Lack of these facilities and orientations will have a negative effect on university students’ desire to do sport (Bushman, Battista, Swan, Ransdell and Thompson, 2014).
Although there are no laws, which stated that women should not engage in sporting activities but there are societal expectations, which hinder them from doing so. These societal beliefs are strong to prevent women from venturing into areas believed to be for men only. Oworu (2003), Okonkwor (2011) and Ojeme, (2007) stated that what has conditioned the women folks to be what they are, is deeply rooted in the prejudicial social patterns of different cultures. Women, through the ages, have always been viewed to be made of sugar and spices. Consequently and in keeping with this metaphor, a feminine picture of woman was conjoined up which seems to militate against females doing anything too physical.
Babatunde, (2001) and Okonkwor, (2007), found that culture and tradition, age, gender, ordinal position, parents, as significant socio-cultural factors which influence female participation in sports. However, studies have not shown whether these could be found in tertiary institution in Ekiti State. Thus, the need to find out attitude of female secondary school student toward sport participation in Ikere Local Government Area Ekiti State in Nigeria.Rikard and Banville (2006) state that attitudes are born from beliefs that one has about him or herself and thing. Attitude shape ones behaviors in many ways and determine ones involvement in our daily activities.
Statement of the problem
Schools are used as a source of future generation for a given country. Moreover, the issue of gender, particularly, in the education sector has become a major concern. Physical education is one of the main areas that needs due attention of equal participation of both male and female students. The participation of female students is under several problems that resulted unequal participation between them in Nigeria in general and the study area in particular. Among other problems, lack of family guidance, lack of sports field material, socio-cultural problem and the existence of little researcher in the area as well as the failure to conduct schools competition at all levels; it was taken place; section to section, school to school, between Local government at State government level and at country level. The last problem i.e. absence of schools competitions has hindered, particularly the females, to show their talent, not to be recruited by clubs and so on.
The existing studies undertaken at Ikere will be limited in their area of interest. A research conducted by Fekadu (2005), with the main objective to assess female students’ participation and specifically tried to explore the challenges, socio-cultural and school factors. On the other hand, Andualem (2012) studied with an emphasis on female participation in athletics session. Even though the above studies have been conducted on their area of interest; they did not assess female students’ participation in the physical education both at classroom /theoretical/ and practical class activities. The researchers have observed that in Ikere local government, women cannot expose certain parts of their body and thus, women in this case cannot engage in sports because they have to put on dresses that would make them free to participate such as bikini for swimming, pants for athletics, shorts and vests for games. Therefore, this study will try to fill the gap on the above stated issues and strives to assess the trends of females’ student participation in the physical education both at theoretical and practical session in comprehensive manner by taking secondary schools in Ikere local government area of Ekiti State.
Purpose the Study
Specifically the research tried to address the following specific objectives.
- If academic performance of female secondary school students will influence their attitude towards sport participation.
- To investigate if religion can influence female secondary school student toward sport participation
- If family background will influence the attitude of female secondary school student toward sport participation.
- To examine if the interest of female influence their attitude towards sport participation
Significance of the Study
This study will used as a reference for further researches in the area of female participation in physical education class. The finding of the study will also inform the stakeholders about female participation in high school and preparatory school.
The findings of the study will further enlightens the strengths and weaknesses of female participation, which have enormous significance for the stake holders to take a peculiar interventions in the area and take into account in devising and implementation case specific intervention plan.
The study will be useful to school principal, physical and health education teacher, and other sport teachers in encouraging female secondary school students to participate in sport. The study will be useful to Ekiti State sport council and other sport agency, to promote female secondary school students in the area of sports. The study will be of importance and help to the female secondary school students, to have positive attitude towards sport participation. The out-come of this study will be of help to the researcher to acquire more wisdom and knowledge, about the attitude of female secondary schools students toward sport participation.
Scope of the study
The study will be delimited to the attitude of female secondary school student toward sport participation. The students of secondary school will be used as respondents. The survey design of the descriptive type of research will be used for this study. The research instrument will be self-structured questionnaire. The analysis of data will be done using descriptive statistics involving frequency counts and percentage to answer the research questions.
1 Will academic performance of female secondary school student influence their attitude toward sport participation?
- Can religion influence female secondary school student towards sport participation?
- Does family background influence the attitude of female secondary school studentstoward sport participation?
- Does the interest of female secondary school student influence their attitude towards sport participation?
- There is no significance difference on the academic performance of female secondary school student and their attitude toward sport participation?
- There is no significant difference on religion influence female secondary school student towards sport participation?
- family background does not have significant influence on the attitude of female secondary school students toward sport participation?
- There is no significance difference on the female students interest towards sport participation
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