A STUDY OF PERCEIVED READING PROBLEMS AMONG PRIMARY THREE PUPILS IN SELECTED PRIMARY SCHOOLS IN ADO – EKITI METROPOLIS
The study was carried out to perceived the reading problem of primary three pupils of selected primary schools in Ado-Ekiti metropolis. This study also examine the problem associated with reading in order to identify the problem and make educational administration to be aware of what happened in the field (classroom). Literature review was done. Descriptive research design method was used for this study. Data were collected as its analyzed and reported without manipulation or distortion of any of the variables. The population for this research covers all the pupils selected primary schools in Ado-Ekiti metropolis.. The sample for this study is made up of one hundred (100) pupils, randomly selected from the pupils in the selected. A close ended questionnaire was employed for accuracy in the statistical analysis. A test re-test method was used to ensure reliability of the instrument. The scores obtained were subjected to Pearson Product Moment Correlation Analysis which yielded 0.75 reliability coefficient. This was considered to be reliable for the study.
The study revealed that school provides textbooks for pupils, parents’ provide them recommended textbook for use, teachers teach them well , teachers refer them to textbook, pupils do not avoid lesson because they don’t have textbook. Hypothesis tested revealed that the availability of learning materials has significant relationship with reading problem of primary three pupils. This corroborate with the findings of Yusuf, (2010) who opined that instructional Material are very useful in improving the reading skills of the pupils, it help or make the leaner highly proficient and develop their reading skills.
This study concluded that reading is a long life activity. Those who enjoy reading derive pleasure and satisfaction from it. Skills in reading will not only assist pupils in organising their thought and setting down important fact while reading, but also equip them to comprehend entire text.
The study therefore recommended that, Government should provide trained teachers who can help pupils to read and write Parent and Government should provide adequate textbooks for pupils. Schools should be built in a conducive environment and government should before a school is build there e. must be survey by the government agent who examine the site if it is good for school or not
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page i
Table of Contents viii
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background To The Study
Statement of the Problem
Purpose of the Study
Significant of the Study
Scope of the Study
Delimitation of the Study
Definition of Terms
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
The concept of Reading
The concept of Reading Readiness
Factors to be considered in Reading Readiness of Primary Three Pupils
Method of Teaching Reading in Schools.
Reading Techniques or Techniques for Enhancing Reading.
Issues Relating to Teaching Reading in Primary Schools
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHOD
Sample and sampling techniques.
Validation of Instruments.
Reliability of the Instruments.
Administration of the Instruments.
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULT AND DISCUSSION
Analysis of Questionnaire
Analysis of Research Hypotheses
Discussion of Results
CHAPTER FIVE : SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Background to the Study
Reading is a complex understanding and an impressive achievement. It is a complex system of deriving meaning from print. It is a process in which information from the text and knowledge possessed by the reader act together to produce meaning (Anderson,Hilbert ,Scott, and Wilkinson, 1985).
Reading involves both the aquisition of the meaning intended by the writer and the reader own contribution in form of interpretation, evaluation and reflection about these meaning. Reading is therefore more than interpretating words clearly, pronouncing words correctly and recognising the meaning g of isolated words. A requires one to think, feel, and imagine.
Reading basically consist of psycho-linguistic processes of identification, recognition, perception , Interpretation, mental integration, recall and perception of writing written language symbols. It is said to be one of the most important skill that enables student a them to read a variety of reading materials and which also help in dealing academic tasks. Student must read in other to become and remain aware of object to update their knowledge and understanding of ideas of others.
There is a point in a child growth when we expect ‘real reading ‘ to start, children are expected without help to read. Some unfamiliar text, there are many reason why children have difficulty learning to read. These issues and problem led to the initiation of this study.
Reading and academic achievement are essential for research workers and educationalist to know wheater every child is gifted, average, backward e.t.c should be educated in his or her own way but if he or she possesses good study habits, he or she can perform well in academic in every situation . It is the reading habit who helps the learner in obtaining meaningful and desirable knowledge .Good reading g habit act as a strong weapon for student to excel in life (Bashir and Marlo, 2012).
English language was introduced in Nigeria in the early ninety century by the British colonial masters. English language is a foreign language in Nigeria in the sense that it is not an indigenous language but in Nigeria as the second language.
Ever since it was introduced in Nigeria, it has survived many decades and still virtual status in Nigeria (Bamigboye,2005) see English language in Nigeria as one of the colonial administration which has succeeded in eliminating the problem of multiple language in Nigeria. English language as played a major role in Nigeria which could be seen in education , government, business, commerce, mass media, and most of internal and external communication above all, English language as played the role of language of political unity.
English as been related has world most popular language which is characterized by active communication indigenous owner of the language. Formal language in Nigeria today, it is the product of English language. Without English language there is possibility that there may not be be formal education in Nigeria the performance of students preliminary level over the years has been on a downward as most of our primary pupils can not read or write, the ability to read is one derterminant of students success of failure. They most form the habit of reading to perform well in all subject. A good reader as a better opportunity for greater achievement. (Agibola 2006) state that a reading habit is cultivated by individual who are ready to give there all to it.
A skill acquired in reading can help the acquisition of language skill like listening, speaking and writing. Some primary school pupils find it difficult to read and understand despite the fact that reading us indispensable. Some show a carefree attitude towards reading .this problem is not peculiar to primary schools but peculiar to all categories of learners.
For effect of reading problem in English language among primary school pupils, parent should try hard to provide their children with necessary learning facilities such as English language recommended textbooks and other relevant textbook. Parent should encourage their children to cultivate the idea the idea of speaking English throughout their stay in and outside the school. Student should be encouraged to read extensive material written in English e.g magazine, journal, and newspaper.
It is essential for parent or teachers to encourage their pupils to form good reading habits through purchases of adequate story books of interest to the children at home. They should be encourage in the use of dictionary to look at difficult words or vocabularies.
The teachers should or must be updated with the knowledge of English language, the teachers must do some research in order to be versed in the subject. The teachers should replenish themselves with modern method of teaching and they must not be ignorant of change. Seminars , workshops and lectures should be organised for English teachers. The use of teaching aid is very important , the teacher should however teach with instructional material, e.g textbooks.
According to Yusuf, (2007) Instructional Material are very useful in improving the reading skills of the pupils, it help or make the leaner highly proficient in the language. Despite the availability of the instructional materials some teachers are still reluctant to make use of these materials due to a number of factors lack of access to training or lack of time to training/ course and lack of awareness of potential benefits of instructional materials to the students, therefore, teacher should use teaching aids, they should improvise if they are not available.
Some English teachers seem to be lagging behind in their approach to teaching reading in schools, the effect is poor performance among student, these teachers lack method of imparting reading skills to pupils. The condition is so bad that some pupils find it difficult to read and understand a simple sentence, for no reason should a teacher that does not know English be given the subject. English teachers should get instructional materials that could match with both the methodology and set objective for the topic in English language,
Both the student and teacher should be familiar with the USD of instructional materials because it allows learners to assimilate easily. The attitude of students towards reading is another factor responsible for the problems in reading skills. Most students lack interest in reading books especially literally text. Students should right mental attitude to studies, they should develop interest in reading and not to be lazy. Teachers should motivate the student either in cash or kind towards reading habit, students should appreciate the power of communication in English.
Students background, inadequate vocabulary will make reading effective difficult and hinder the performance of the pupils. Assignment should be given to student daily in various division of English always with a lot if essays.(amutheazi,2001) notes that there is an urgent need to investigate into the cause of poor reading among our pupils with the view to finding lasting solution to the problem.
Reading is not reciting if the letters of alphabet, it is not pronunciation though correct pronunciation is part of good reading , it is not a choral activity (choral activity has its own use). It is not a monetization exercise. Reading involves interaction between the readers and the writer of a text. It involves use if reading strategies to process meaning and also it is primarily and individual or solo activity.
According to oyinloye(2002), reading is a sort of silent and individual activity carried out in order to retrieve information. He also emphasized that reading is an important skill in learning as learners have to retrieve information from books. Learners and reader have to master reading skill so that they can respond at surface level and at deeper level of understanding the elict meaning of word, sentence, paragraph or passage.
Reading enable readers to keep adequate records, no more about people, their culture and progress without going to them. Reading also helps the reader to adhere to warning and avoid danger one can read for enjoyment or read to look for specific information.
Ogwuche (2000) defines reading as not only a mechanical process but a thoughtful process that requires the reader not only to understand what the author is intending to communicate but also to contribute his own experience and thought to the problem if understanding, thinking, and giving meaning to printed or written symbols.
He further describes reading as apart of the process through which an author and reader communicate. Here, the author initiate the process by wanting to share an idea or some information, problem, questions, feeling, some instructions or a story. The author think about the message to be communicated and then records it in written language.
At present due to the influence of mass media, people do not show much interest in reading books, magazines, and journals, (palani 2012). Even the cankerworm of examination malpractice may be traceable to the prevalent poor reading interest habit among the wide spectrum of students. In addition, the by – products of scientific and technological inventions and innovations have also contributed greatly to the dwindling fortunes of the good practice of reading among majority of students. Today many student prefer to watch movies and other shows on television, listening to audio-CDs, watching video-CDs, among other (Issa, 2012).
Reading is the identification of symbols and the association of appropriate meaning with them, it require identification and comprehension. Comprehension skill help the learner to understand the meaning of work in isolation and in context (Palani, 2012). He believes reading is a process of thinking, evaluating, judging imaging, reasoning and problem solving.
The effect of reading depends on drive that comes with the learners and the student interest in reading can be sustained through training.
Statement of the Problem
Reading is important in both acquiring the language and also obtaining knowledge, however not all student are able to read well especially in reading comprehension. Reading comprehension has come to be the essence of reading.
Since reading revolves mostly around comprehension of text, student who cannot sufficiently restructure the author’s main idea, and supporting facts, as well as make some critical evaluation of these things, cannot read for the purpose of the course regardless of what type of material they read outside the class.
Reading can be seen as an essential achievement in all school subject. This mean that a learner who have a reading problem in economic or mathematic therefore, study perceived reading problem and finding solution toward improving reading ability of primary three pupils cannot be over emphasized. This research ill specifically investigate the following.
- How primary three pupils are motivated to learn and develop interest in reading.
- The method and techniques employed by teachers in the teaching of reading skills at that level and effectiveness of this methods and techniques.
- The types of (textbook / teaching aids) used by the teachers and how relevant these materials are to the teaching and learning of reading skill.
- The area of difficulties faced by the teachers and pupils in the teaching and learning.
- Suggest how best to improve the teaching and learning of reading skill.
Purpose of the Study
The general aim of this research is to perceive the reading problem of primary three pupils of selected primary schools in Ado-Ekiti metropolis.
This study also intends to examine the problem associated with reading to identify the problem and make
Educational administration to be aware of what happening in the field (classroom).
Find out how reading skill are barging taught at the level.
Discourse the various challenges faced by teachers and learners in reading either English.
The aims were achieved based on finding answers to the following research questions.
- Will availability of learning materials influence reading problem of primary three pupils.
- Is there any relationship between the environment of school nd the reading problem of primary three pupils
- Is there any relationship between the environment of school and the reading problem of primary three pupils?
- Is there any relationship between mother tongue and reading problem of primary three pupils?
The aims were achieved based on the firing answers to the following research questions.
- Availability of learning materials will not influence student reading problem of primary three pupils.
- There is no significant relationship between parental responsibility and reading problem of primary three pupils.
- There is no significant relationship between the environment of the school and the reading problems of primary three pupils.
- There is no significant relationship between mother tongue and reading problem of primary three pupils.
Significance of the Study
- To highlight the causes of the reading problems of pupils at primary three with a view of informing concerned education authority for solution.
- Serve as useful biography tool for future researchers.
- To suggest effective solutions to reading problem of pupils at primary three.
- Serve as a useful resource material for student of education and already in the field.
Scope of the Study
This research works aims at covering all primary schools in Ado-Ekiti metropolis however, because of limited time and the source a sample of these will be chosen, the sample consists of primary schools randomly selected in Ado-Ekiti metropolis. The sample is made up of government owned primary school in Ado-Ekiti. Is content is focus in reading problem.
Delimitation of the Study
Hence, the study is delimitated to examine perceive reading problems among primary three pupils in selected primary schools in Ado Ekiti local government area of Ekiti State.
Definition of Terms
The term used in the study are define in accordance with how they are used in the study.
- PERCIVED; To see, to understand, to notice or be aware of something.
- READING; Is the process or ability to recognize and interpret a symbols, a Sign, a measuring device or what is in print.
- EDUCATION; The process or act of imparting knowledge, skills and judgement in other word, it simply means the teaching of training minds and characters also an act of acquired general knowledge.
- SKILL; means knowledge acquired by someone that enable effectiveness.
- BACKGROUND; information relevant to current situation about past event, history.
- PUPILS; a student under the supervision of a teacher or professor, they are children that are found in primary schools.
- MOHERTONGUES; the language spoken by one ancestors.
- LAGGING BEHIND; not adequate knowledge.
- METROPOLIS; a large important city(often the capital city of a country or region).
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