The study intends to findout the effect of improvised instructional materials on the teaching and learning of biology in some selected secondary schools in Akoko South East Local Government Area of Ondo State. The sample comprised of  one hundred (100) secondary school students and thirty teachers randomly sampled from 10 schools in the local Government Area. The data  collected was analyzed using mean, standard deviation and t-test statistics. The findings revealed that students taught with improvised instructional materials performed better than those taught without instructional materials. Also there is no significant difference in the mean achievement scores of male and female students. The null hypothesis tested at 0.05 level of significance indicated that there is significant difference between the achievement scores of those taught with instructional materials and those taught without instructional materials. It was therefore recommended that instructional materials be used in teaching in secondary schools because it has positive impact on student’s performance.






Title page

Approval page




Table of Content



1.1     Background of the Study                                                                  1

1.2     Statement of the Research Problem                                         6

1.3     Purpose of the Study                                                               8

1.4     Significance of the Study                                                                  9

1.5     Research Question                                                                            9

1.6     Research Hypothesis                                                               10

1.7     Scope of the Study                                                                            10

1.8     Definition of Terms                                                                 11


2.1     the concept of improvisation                                                   12

2.2     The important of improvisation in the teaching of        biology       14

2.3     Teachers use of improvisation in biology teaching

construction of techniques in improvisation                                     16

2.3     Problem faced  by teachers when improvising

instructional material                                                             22

2.5     Construction Techniques in Improvisation                                       27

2.6     Problem of improvisation in biology                                                30

2.7     Theoretical Framework                                                           31

2.8     Appraisal of the related literature reviewed                                      37


3.1     Research Design                                                                      39

3.2     Population of the Study                                                          40

3.3     Sample and Sampling Techniques                                           40

3.4     Instruction for Data Collection                                                         41

3.5     Validation of the Instrument                                                   42

3.6     Reliability of the instrument                                                    42

3.7     Administration of the Instrument                                            42

3.8     Data Analysis Techniques                                                       43


4.0     INTRODUCTION                                                                            44

4.1     Analysis of Research Question                                                         45

4.2     Test of Hypotheses                                                                 53

4.3     Discussion                                                                               56


5.1     Summary of the Study                                                            58

5.2     Conclusion                                                                              60

5.2     Implication of the Study                                                                   61

5.3     Recommendation                                                                     61

5.4     Limitation of the Study                                                           62

5.5     Suggestion for Further Research                                             63

REFERENCES                                                                       64

APPENDIX                                                                                      72




1.1     Background to the Study

Innovation in education is the act of producing new things that are important and that will enhance teaching and learning effectively. Improvisation is the act of making science teaching and learning materials from locally available resources.

Eniayeju, (2000) viewed improvisation as the “art of substituting for the real thing”. Another important view about improvisation is by Alonge (1990) who sees improvisation as not only the production of import-substitution of materials of real thing, rather it is an activity in promoting curiosity, alertness, endurance and perseverance all of which are indispensable to science scientists and learning as a whole. Johnson (2002) defines improvisation as the process of productive thinking that can generate tangible outcome or product.

Similarly for those concerned with appliedfields, improvised productivity means the quality of output in the form of socially and technologically recognized products. However, in science it implies another kind of quantity output as a result of production. The products in improvisation must be less in cost when they are compared with the commercially constructed ones. Improvisation could be modeling of an original object, or copying the construction of an object or equipment to a high degree of accuracy (Lowe,1990).

Learning is a permanent change in behaviours. Learning is assumed to have taken place if a change is confirmed. This could be through the new activity the learner is able to perform. Instructional material simply means the teaching device that helps the teacher to clarify, establish, correlate and coordinate various concepts, interpretations and applications. (Balogun, 1992).

Instructional materials are learning resources that help in teaching and learning processes, which help the teacher to deliver his lesson during the course of his teaching. They can also be referred to as relevant and cheaply selected tools or equipment that are usually incorporated in the teaching and learning process in order to boost or enhance effective teaching and learning activities in the classroom or any other environment where formal educational system take place.

The search for efficient and effective delivery of instruction to students has always been major concern of science educators. This is so as a result of repeated mss failure recorded in West African Senior Secondary School Examination (WASSCE). Among other factors that could be responsible for this failure are the instructional materials which definitely must have a significant role to play in teaching and learning process. Instructional materials are defined by different scholars though they convey the same meaning when interpreted. Instructional material could be explained as devices through which knowledge, skills, attitude, ideas, beliefs and values got transmitted to the learner by the teacher in order to ease teaching-learning process. Akinbi (1991) defined instructional materials as materials designed to enrich the teaching and learning processes and hence contribute to better learning. Leohard (2001) conceived instructional materials as “ a wide range of materials and devices, designed to provide realistic image and substitute experiences in order to enrich curricular experiences of many kinds”. From the above mentioned meanings of instructional materials, the best way of helping pupils to learn is to bring them face to face with the world which education intends to introduce to them (Mkpa,(1999)). He stressed further that one way this can be attained is by using real objects in real life situations for instruction. Where real lifesituation are not possible, the alternative is for the teacher to use improvised instructional materials of real life situation. These improvised instructional materials are materials, devices and techniques that help the teacher to make realistic approach to his job. Whether real or substitutes, these improvised instructional materials have a common goal. They help the teacher to convey the intended message effectively and meaningfully to the learners so that the learners receive, understand, retain and apply the experience gained to reach overall educational goals. Some authors have written to classify the types of instructional materials that may be used in teaching and learning ( Ezegbe, (1990), Adjai, (2000) Ukeje, (2002)).

Generally, according to the classification, we have audio-aids:-those resources that appeal to the sense of hearing only; visual aids:-those that appeal to the senseof sight only; and audio-visual aids those that appeal both senses of hearing and sight at the same time. While some of these materials are difficult to procure, on account of their cost and availability, many can be improvised by the resourceful leader.

In a nut shell, improvised instructional materials are teaching materialsdesign and produce from the available local materials in order to enhance effectiveteaching and learning in schools.Improvised instructional material is a method or way of minimizing loss ofequipment and materials and an inexpensive method of widening the scope ofinquiry. Improvised instructional material is a meaningful attempt towardsfinding suitable substitute or alternative to conventional science materials. Dueto state of our nation’s economy, Teachers, students, school authorities andcommunities should engage in improvising instructional materials in order to: develop in students and teachers adequate skill for improvisation, this will generate interest and motivation for indigenous technology,have practical and physical links between science and theory, eradicate the menace of lack of or inadequate instructionalmaterials for science,sensitize both students and teachers that alternatives for someof the conventional science teaching materials are possible and achieve the set out educational objectives through the use ofimprovised instructional materials in teaching.

Biology teachers should find out those materials that could beimprovised without; much cost, many complications in handlingand losing the originality of the concepts to be taught.

Improvised instructional materials make teaching biological concepts more interesting to both students and teachers in the classroom, improvised materials are usually simple and may not have perfect finishing, because they are made from local raw resources that are acceptable to students. Improvised instructional materials help Biology and other science students to realize that science has to do with ordinary things and will possibly motivate them to carry out experiments and learning activities themselves using improvised materials, Johnson (2000).

Zarewa (1991) as sited by Johnson (2000), noted that no matter how rich and generous educational authorities might be they are not always in position to provide their schools with all the materials they may need. Therefore, the schools,students and teachers might be obliged to make the most of what they can get orconstruct from locally available raw materials.

For instance certain things like herbarium press, aquarium tank, and woodensplint can easily be improvised by competent science teachers instead of waitingfor supplies by the educational authorities.

1.2     StatementoftheProblem

The relevance of education in any society cannot be understated. It is regarded as the single potent factor that leads to the improvement of an individual as well as society. The need to provide basic formal education to all schools whether public or private sector in Akoko South East Local Government Area is therefore a paramount social responsibility. The question of how credible students, teachers education programmed is in terms of effectiveness and appropriateness of improvised instructional materials has remained a major issue of interest to many people in Ondo State and environs.

The quality of instruction, teachers and equipment in Biology are usually considered sub-standard, inadequate equipment and lack of teachers contribute to the poor teaching of Biology education. Many schools do not have Biology laboratory and teachers are often unqualified. Research has shown that poor perception over the production of improvised instructional materials in schools, low level of utilization of these materials, non challant attitude of teachers towards improvisation of materials, poor funding, lack of equipment, laboratories are majorcauses of poor educational materials (resources) in the impermanent of Biology education programmed. For learning to be meaningful and permanent, it is necessary that improvised instructional materials should be used. Therefore this study is aimed at investigating the use of improvised instructional materials for effective teaching and learning of Biology in Akoko South East Local Government Area.

1.3     PurposeoftheStudy.

This study is designed to investigate the use of improvised instructional materials for effective teaching and learning of Biology among some selected secondary school in Akoko South East Local Government.

The specific objective will be to:

  1. Investigate the positive and negative attitude of Biology teachers towards instructional materials in teaching Biology
  2. To investigate if students taught with improvised instructional materials perform better than students taught with conventional method.
  • To find out the problem associated with the use of improvised instructional materials in teaching biology.
  1. To determine the impact of instructional materials on students academic performance in biology.
  2. To find out the attitude of biology students towards the use of instructional materials.

1.4     Significanceofthestudy.

Findings from this study may reveal clearly the attitudes of Biology teacher towards improvisation. This will serve as a pointer to the prevailing condition in our schools. Both administrators and teachers, trainers may benefit from the findings and may enlighten them about the usefulness of improvised materials to the teachers, it may encourage them to know that some topics can be taught using improvised materials.

1.5     Researchquestions.

The research questions formulated for the purpose of this study are stated below:

  1. What are the attitude of biology teachers towards instructional materials?
  2. What are the impact of instructional materials on students academic performance in biology?
  • What are the problem associated with the use of instructional materials in teaching biology?
  1. What are the attitude of biology students towards the use of instructional materials?
  2. Does students taught with improvised instructional materials perform better than students taught without improvised instructional materials?

1.6     ResearchHypotheses

In addition to the research questions, the following hypotheses were formulated and tested:

  1. There is no significant relationship between students taught with improvised instructional materials and those taught without improvised instructional materials.
  2. There is no significant relationship between attitude of male and female toward the use of improvised instructional materials on students academic performance.

1.7     ScopeoftheStudy

This research work investigate the use of improvised instructional materials in teaching and learning of Biology. The study is limited to all teachers and students of Biology at the senior secondary level in Akoko South East Local Government Area of Ondo State.



1.8     Definitionofterms

In order to make this study meaningful, some of the terms used are explained. The major concepts in this study which need clear definitions of their operational meaning as used in this terms are:

Improvisation: this is the process of devising a solution to a requirement by making do despite absence of resources that might be expected to produce a solution.

Instructional materials: these are materials or objects which aids teaching and learning in classroom.

Improvised instructional materials: it make teaching biological concepts more interesting to both students and teachers in the classroom.

Equipment: this is anything kept, furnished or provided for a specific purpose.

Teacher: it refers to as educator or schoolteacher who is a person who provide education for students.

Students: this is a pupil, is a learner or someone who attends an educational institution.

Academic performance: this is the requirement of students to maintain a satisfactory academic record and meet the obligations of the courses in which they are enrolled.

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