TEACHER QUALIFICATION, GENDER AND WORKING EXPERIENCE AS DETERMINANTS OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN BIOLOGY
This study was carried out to teachers qualification, Gender and working experience as determinant of secondary school students academic performance in Ado-Ekiti Local Government Area ofEkiti State. Relevant literature were revealed. Descriptive research design was used for this study. The population for the study consisted of teachers of all the secondary schools in Ado –Local Government Area of Ekiti State. One hundred and eighty (180) teachers were sampled using stratified and simple random sampling techniques. Questionnaire was used to collect relevant information from the sampled subject. Validity of the instrument was established by given the drafted questionnaires some test export and project supervisor by their correction and suggestion. The reliability was adjudged established. Test –re-test method was used to established the reliability, the questionnaire was administered on a set of twenty teachers outside the sample twice the set of scores collected were correlated with Pearson Moment correlation formular and 0.05 co-efficient was got, this is high enough to determine the reliability, the instrument was administered personally and all were collected back. The scores generated were analysed using frequency count and percentages.
The study revealed that significant difference existed between the performance of students taught by NCE teachers and B.Sc. Ed. teachers, significant difference existed in performance of students taught by B.Sc holder without teaching qualification and B.Sc. Ed. teachers with teaching qualification.
Finding also revealed significant difference between performance of students taught by professional teachers and non-professional teachers in Mathematics, this also corroborate, the need for nonprofessional teachers to embark on Post Graduate Diploma in Education (PGDE or PDE).
The study concluded that professional qualification of teachers is the major variables affecting students’ performance among secondary school in Ado Local Government Area of Ekiti State, Nigeria. Based on the findings of this study, the following recommendations were given:
- Teachers with NCE should strive to improve their knowledge in by acquiring additional qualification through in-service training or part-time or sandwich degree programme in the Universities around their place of working.
- Graduate teachers without teaching qualification should endeavour to proceed on PGDE or PDE programme to enhance their teaching method in at all level of Schools.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE I
TABLE OF CONTENTS VII
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study 1
Statement of the Problem 6
Purpose of the Study 7
Research Questions 7
Significance of the Study 8
Delimitation of the Study 8
Definition of Terms 9
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Concept of Student Performance 10
Teachers Qualification 15
Teachers’ Qualification and Students’ Academic Performance in
Secondary Schools 20
Teaching Experience and Students’ Academic Performance in
Secondary Schools 23
Teacher Experience 26
Effect of teachers genders on students academic performance 27
Summary of literature
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHOD
Research Design 31
Sample and Sampling Techniques 32
Research Instrument 32
Validity of the Instrument 33
Reliability of the Instrument 33
Administration of the Instrument 33
Data Analysis 34
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Data Analysis of Questionnaires 35
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
Background of the Study
Biology is important for national development and incidentally serves as basis for advance learning of professional courses in fields such as nursing, medicine, pharmacy, and other allied courses. Biology therefore records the highest number of students when compared to other science subjects (chemistry and physics), and it is offered in secondary schools in Nigeria by both science and non- science majors. Considering the importance of the subject, the poor academic achievement in Biology should therefore be a thing of serious concern to the nation.
The teacher is the pivot on which the educational process rests. In fact, the importance and place of teacher in the education process is highly priced by all nations of the world. Little wanders why the Federal Government of Nigeria clearly stated that no education system can rise above the quality of its teachers. Thus, teachers should be provided with the intellectual and professional background adequate for their assignment and make them adequate to changing situations (FRN, 2009). It is important that teachers’ voices are widely accepted as the driving force for educational improvement and development, particularly at this time when the education system faces so many challenges and conflicting pressures.
However, whatever the influences of the teacher would be on the system of education, it can only be determined by the teacher’s quality, teacher’s quantity and teacher’s value (Abodunrin and Ogundore, 1996). This scenario calls for teacher professionalism in order to enhance the role of teachers in the formulation and implementation of educational policies in Nigeria. Nigeria needs teachers who will meet the expectations of the nation; teachers who will help the nation raise a generation of citizens whose performance will meet the international standards; a generation that will be prosperous, vibrant and peaceful. This notion cannot achieve the expected quality education without competent teachers and school administrators who are well equipped with the desirable knowledge, skills and effective operations of the education system (Wokoha, 2014). The Teachers Registration Council of Nigeria (TRCN, 2010), advocates that teaching just like other professions now requires that only those who are adequately prepared and regulated should be entrusted with the teaching- learning process.
The quality of education of a nation could be determined by the quality of her teachers. The most important factor in improving students’ performance is by employing seasoned qualified teachers in all schools (Abe and Adu, 2013). Okuruwa (1999) found that, policy investment on quality of teachers is related to improvement in students’ performance. Specifically, the measurement of teacher’s preparation and certification are correlates of students’ performance. It is further reported that, teacher’s characteristics such as certification status and degree in area of specialization are very significant and positively correlated with students learning outcomes. This report was in line with the findings of Salman (2009).
Abe and Adu (2013) and Wiki (2013) opined that, a teaching qualification or teacher qualification is one of a number of academic and professional degree that enables a person to become a registered teacher in primary or secondary school. Such qualifications include, but are not limited to, the Postgraduate Certificate in Education (PGDE). The Professional Diploma in Education (PDE), Bachelor of Education (B.Ed) and Nigeria Certificate in Education (NCE). In Ekiti State, teachers who are academically qualified and those that are professionally qualified are engaged to carry out instructional process (Ahiazu and Prince Will, 2011).
Academically qualified teachers refer to those who have academic training as a result of enrolment into educational institution and obtained qualifications such as HND, B.Sc, B.A, and M.A. and so on; while professionally qualified teachers are those who got professional training that gave them professional knowledge, skills, techniques, aptitudes as different from the general education (Edu and Kalu, 2012). They hold degrees like, B.Ed., B.Sc. Ed, B.A. Ed, and M.Ed and so on. On the other hand, there are studies that have found no significant relationship between teacher educational qualification and students’ academic performance. For instance, Igwe (1990) investigated the influence of teacher’s qualification on academic performance of students in science subjects in Kano State. The researcher found no significant relationship between teacher’s qualification and students’ performance. While Adeniji (1999), Osokoya (1999) and Oladele (1999) found out that teacher’s qualification contributed minimally to the variance with students’ cognitive performance and Bilesanmi (1999) and Okonwa (1999) found that teacher’s experience was highly significant on students’ academic performance .Coonery (1990) opined that students do not understand some subject when it is being taught by an unqualified teacher. Izumi and Evess (2002) buttressed this by saying that teacher quality is the most important among other critical factors like quality curricula, funding, small class size and learning situation. George (2004) attributed poor performance of students to teacher qualification, inadequacy of materials as well as administrative factors.
Adesina (1982) and Fafunwa (1985) opined that with an exception of holders of minimum of B.Sc , many other teachers would be confronted with problem of teaching secondary school syllabus effectively. Hence, Lussa (1985) argued that no one gives what he/she does not possess. He further said that no matter how good a course curriculum is, if we do not have well trained, qualified and motivated teachers, we may not achieve the desired goals. In view of this, a teacher is someone who has been exposed to a good measure of training in a teaching subject area as well as in professional education: such professionally qualified teachers may according to the Federal Ministry of Education (2004) fall into a number of academic categories.
Mkpa (1987) regarded the trained teacher as someone who underwent and completed his education in a formal teacher training institution or in a planned programme of training. Among such areas of training may include principles and practice of education as well as being exposed to an observed period of internship either after or as part of the period of training. People who fall within this category should under normal circumstances be able to fulfill the various functions expected of teachers within and outside the four walls of the classroom. Furrugia (1987) perceived a professional teacher as one who possesses professionally based knowledge in the theory and practice of education as well as find job satisfaction in the belief that he/she is making an important contribution to the social, cultural and economic development of his/her country. Such a teacher should equally, be able to understand students’ abilities to exploit educational benefits of the social context within which he/she lives. He/She should be able to assist Students to reach their full intellectual potentials.
According to Adieze (1986) non-qualified and non-professional teachers in teaching profession are killing the profession because they are not really teachers. He regarded them as “bird” of passage that create unnecessary vacuum whenever they see greener pasture and better prospect in the profession they are originally trained for. The comparison of students performance, test based on teachers’ qualifications becomes necessary in order to know if formal teaching methods has any significant effect/influence on students’ performance or not.
Poor academic performance has been observed in school among secondary school students (Adesemowo, 2005). Over the past decades, educational planners, policy makers and administrators all over the world have become increasingly concerned about the quality of education provided by the school system. They have come to realize that many meaningful improvements in the quality of education that students receive are highly dependent on the quality of teachers (Anderson, 1991). Studies carried out had indicated the need for teachers’ academic qualification in their various teaching subjects. In an investigation, Etim (1985) found that teachers gained enough skills from a preparatory programme to enable them teach their subjects at any level of secondary school. This points to the need for appropriate training in the subject matter area of teachers so that their classroom instruction could be above board. Otuka (1987) found out misconceptions in students which they traced to misconceptions held by their teachers. Research also shows that teacher knowledge of specific subject matter, particularly at the secondary level is a good predictor of student achievement. Monk (1994) finds a strong correlation between teacher subject matter preparation and student success for both low and high scoring students, while Goldhaber& Brewer (2002) noted that students do better taught by a teacher with a bachelor’s or master’s degree . The professional needs of a teacher vary in relation to the stage he/she is in the profession. Teachers have different professional needs; hence the supports of an inexperienced teacher needs differ from that of a professional teacher. Supervision and coaching are critical elements of professional growth and development (Rockoff, 2004).
Teachers cannot be dissociated from the schools they teach and academic results of schools. It would therefore be logical to use the standardized students’ assessments results as the basis for judging the performance of teachers. Teachers celebrate and are rewarded when their schools and teaching subjects are highly ranked. While appreciating the value of rewarding teachers who produce better results, teachers should also not escape a portion of blame when students perform poorly.It has been proved that teachers have an important influence on students’ academic achievement. They play a crucial role in educational attainment because the teacher is ultimately responsible for translating policy into action and principles based on practice during interaction with the students (Afe, 2001). In their study, Wright, Horn and Sanders (1997) concluded that the most important factor influencing student learning is the teacher. Teachers stand at the interface of the transmission of knowledge, values and skills in the learning process. If the teacher is ineffective, students under the teacher’s tutelage will achieve inadequate progress academically. This is regardless of how similar or different the students are in terms of individual potential in academic achievement.
According to Rivkin, Hanusheck and Kain (2005), there has never been a consensus on the specific teacher factors that influence students’ academic achievement. Researchers have examined the influence of teacher characteristics such as gender, educational qualifications and teaching experience on students’ academic achievement with varied findings. Akiri and Ugborugbo (2008) found that there was a significant relationship between teachers’ gender and students’ academic achievement. This is contrary to Dee cited in Akiri and Ugborugbo (2008). Yala and Wanjohi (2011) and Adeyemi (2010) found that teachers’ experience and educational qualifications were the prime predictors of students’ academic achievement. However, Ravkin et al (2005) found that teachers’ teaching experience and educational qualifications were not significantly related to students’ achievement. Etsy (2005) study in Ghana found that the teacher factors that significantly contributed to low academic achievement were incidences of lateness to school, absenteeism, and inability to complete the syllabi. Scholars have posited that various factors related to the teachers’ characteristics such as their qualification, age, experience, andgender affect the academic performance of students in Science Technical Education and Mathematics (STEM) courses which Industrial Safety is a part of it.
Statement of the Problem
Teaching and learning depends to a large extent on teacher’s own knowledge of the content and ability to adequately deliver the instruction to the students. However a lot of variables may inhibit or hinder effective dissemination of knowledge to the understanding of the content by the students, such variables may be lack of qualified teachers, teachers’ qualification, experience, inadequate use of instructional materials among others. While the present study sought to determine the effect of teachers’ qualification on secondary school students’ performance.
Purpose of the Study
The major objective of this study is to investigate the impact of teacher qualification ,teachers gender and working experience as a corolate to students performance among selected secondary schools in Ado local government area.
Also the specific objective is to
- To determine teacher qualification on student academic performance
- To determine the perception of teacher on students for poor performance and teacher’s qualification?
- To determine the attitude of teacher towards teaching and learning
- To determine effect of teachers gender on students academic performance
This research will attempt to answer the following questions.
- What are the impact of teaching experience on students academic performance ?
- Does instructional materials have impact on students academic performance ?
- What effect does teachers attitude have on students academic performance?
- Does teachers genders affect students academic performance?
- There is no significant relationship between teachers’ qualification and student academic performance .
- There is no significant relationship between teachers’ experience and students’ academic performance
- There is no significant relationship between teachers’ gender and students academic performance
Significances of the Study
This study is considered significant in the sense that it will generate sufficient data useful to teachers and government that are concerned with the welfare of students. Also, it is hopeful that the study will provide data on impact of teachers qualification on the academic performances of the students
Also, it will help the curriculum planners to known if teacher qualification is the major factors of student poor academic performance in the sample school.
The outcome of this research will create data that will help in future research. The result of the study would assist the federal government and the ministry of Education on how to improve the conditions of the standard of living among undergraduate students in order to employ efforts to reduce stress in tertiary schools in Nigeria. This research work will enhance the student academic performance and serves as a guide to students who may want carryout research on a similar topic. The research will help parent to know the impact a qualified teacher has on their children.
Definition of Terms
Teacher :A person who cares enough about abusive and ungrateful teens to work for crappy pay and long hours while hoping someday students mature enough to realize how lucky they are to have someone who gives a shit about them.
Student: a person formally engaged in learning, especially one enrolled in a school or college; or any person who studies, investigates, or examines thoughtfully:
Academic performance: Academic achievement or (academic) performance is the outcome of education — the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has achieved their educational goals.
Teacher Qualification: Teaching qualification or teacher qualification is one of a number of academic and professional degree that enables a person to become a registered teacher in primary or secondary school.